CASRN 92-52-4 | DTXSID4020161

IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Final Report)

On this page:


EEPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Biphenyl: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.


U.S. EPA. IRIS Toxicological Review of Biphenyl (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/635/R-11/005F, 2011.

Top of Page


Biphenyl is an organic compound that forms colorless crystals. It occurs naturally in coal tar, crude oil, and natural gas. Biphenyl was once used in the production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) before they were banned in the late 1970s. It is no longer used as an antimicrobial and a fungicide in the U.S., but it is still used as a fungistat in other countries, most commonly in the packaging of citrus fruits. Today, biphenyl is mainly used in the production of pesticides, as a dye carrier in polyester dyeing, and as a component of heat transfer fluids, which are used for industrial processing applications. Biphenyl is found at multiple Superfund sites and other hazardous waste sites. It is on the list of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) and is classified as one of the High Production Volume (HPV) chemicals.


Date Description
01- Aug 1989 The RfD for 1,1-biphenyl was posted to the IRIS Database.
02- Mar 1991 The cancer assessment for 1,1-biphenyl was posted to the IRIS database.
03- Sep 2011 EPA hosted an interagency science consultation on the review of the draft Toxicological Review of Biphenyl.
04- Sep 2011 EPA released the external review draft of the biphenyl assessment for public review and comment. [Federal Register Notice Sep 30, 2011]
05- Jun 2012 EPA released the comments from the public comment period and external review workshop.
06- Aug 2013 EPA posted the final Toxicological Review of Biphenyl to the IRIS database.


Following external peer review and public comment, the assessment will be revised taking into consideration the comments received. It will then undergo a final internal review by EPA and other federal agencies and White House offices. After completing the review it will be posted to the IRIS database.

Top of Page


This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

If you have a disability and the format of any material on our web pages interferes with your ability to access the information, please reach out to us using the Contact Us about IRIS form for assistance. To enable us to respond in a manner most helpful to you, please indicate the nature of the accessibility problem, the web address of the requested material, your preferred format in which you want to receive the material (electronic format (ASCII, etc.), standard print, large print, etc.), and your contact information.

Top of Page