CASRN 57-13-6 | DTXSID4021426

IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Final Report)

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EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Urea: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health.


U.S. EPA. IRIS Toxicological Review of Urea (Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, EPA/635/R-10/005F, 2011.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an endogenous product of protein and amino acid catabolism. It can also be produced synthetically by combining ammonia, carbon monoxide, and sulfur in methanol. Urea is utilized in diesel selective catalyst reduction, in fertilizers and animal feed, plastics, flame-proofing agents, adhesives, flavoring agents and consumer goods such as liquid soaps, detergents and household cleaning products.


Date Description
01- Apr 2008 The IRIS reassessment of urea was initiated as a draft development document.
02- Jun 2010 EPA hosted the interagency science consultation on the draft Toxicological Review of Urea.
03- Sep 2010 EPA released the External Review Draft for public review and comment and the interagency science consultation review draft with comments. [Federal Register Sep 28, 2010]
04- Nov 2010 EPA announced the external peer review meeting to be held on December 13, 2010 via teleconference. [Federal Register Nov 10, 2010]
05- Jan 2011 EPA released the comments from the public comment period and external review workshop.
06- Jun 2011 EPA hosted an interagency science discussion on the review of the draft Toxicological Review of Urea.
07- Jul 2011 EPA released the final Toxicological Review of Urea, IRIS Summary for Urea and the interagency review draft with interagency review comments.

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This document has been reviewed in accordance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency policy and approved for publication. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

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