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Searches using filters for organ/system affected are limited to effects (or tumor sites) used to derive the RfD, RfC, oral slope factor, or inhalation unit risk. Other effects associated with chemicals in the IRIS database that were not used as the basis for a toxicity value are not searchable with organ/system filters. IRIS Advanced Search searches only final IRIS assessments; to look for information on draft assessments, see Quick Check: Assessments in Development.

  CHEMICAL NAME CASRN EXPOSURE ROUTE ASSESSMENT TYPE CRIT EFFECT TUMOR TYPE WOE CHARACTERIZATION TOXICITY VALUE TYPE TOXICITY VALUE
1 Acenaphthene 83-32-9 Oral Noncancer Hepatotoxicity n/a RfD 6 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
2 Acephate 30560-19-1 Oral Noncancer Inhibition of brain ChE n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
3 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Inhalation Noncancer Degeneration of olfactory epithelium n/a RfC 9 x 10 -3 mg/m3
4 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Inhalation Cancer Nasal squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.2 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
5 Acetochlor 34256-82-1 Oral Noncancer Salivation, increased ALT and ornithine carbamyl transferase; significant increases in triglyceride and decreased blood glucose levels; histopathological changes in kidneys and testes of males n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
6 Acetone 67-64-1 Oral Noncancer Nephropathy n/a RfD 9 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
7 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Inhalation Noncancer Mortality n/a RfC 6 x 10 -2 mg/m3
8 Acetophenone 98-86-2 Oral Noncancer General Toxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
9 Acifluorfen, sodium 62476-59-9 Oral Noncancer Mortality and kidney lesions n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
10 Acrolein 107-02-8 Inhalation Noncancer Nasal lesions n/a RfC 2 x 10 -5 mg/m3
11 Acrolein 107-02-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased survival n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
12 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Inhalation Cancer thyroid tumors and tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
13 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Oral Cancer thyroid tumors and tunica vaginalis mesotheliomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
14 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Inhalation Noncancer Degenerative nerve changes n/a RfC 6 x 10 -3 mg/m3
15 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Oral Noncancer Degenerative nerve changes n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
16 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Oral Noncancer Reduced pup weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
17 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Inhalation Noncancer Degeneration of the nasal olfactory epithelium n/a RfC 1 x 10 -3 mg/m3
18 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Oral Cancer Brain and spinal cord astrocytomas, Zymbal gland carcinomas and stomach papillomas/ carcinomas B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5.4 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
19 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Inhalation Noncancer Degeneration and inflammation of nasal respiratory epithelium; hyperplasia of mucous secreting cells n/a RfC 2 x 10 -3 mg/m3
20 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Inhalation Cancer Respiratory cancer B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6.8 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
21 Alachlor 15972-60-8 Oral Noncancer Hemosiderosis, hemolytic anemia n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
22 Alar 1596-84-5 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
23 Aldicarb 116-06-3 Oral Noncancer Sweating as clinical sign of AChe inhibition n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
24 Aldicarb sulfone 1646-88-4 Oral Noncancer Brain ChE inhibition in females n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
25 Aldrin 309-00-2 Oral Cancer Liver carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.7 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
26 Aldrin 309-00-2 Oral Noncancer Liver toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
27 Aldrin 309-00-2 Inhalation Cancer Liver carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.9 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
28 Ally 74223-64-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
29 Allyl alcohol 107-18-6 Oral Noncancer Impaired renal function and increased liver and kidney weights n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
30 Allyl chloride 107-05-1 Inhalation Noncancer Functional and histological peripheral neurotoxicity n/a RfC 1 x 10 -3 mg/m3
31 Aluminum phosphide 20859-73-8 Oral Noncancer Body weight and clinical parameters n/a RfD 4 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
32 Amdro 67485-29-4 Oral Noncancer Increased organ weights n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
33 Ametryn 834-12-8 Oral Noncancer Liver toxicity n/a RfD 9 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
34 Amitraz 33089-61-1 Oral Noncancer Increased mean blood sugar concentration; slight hypothermia n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
35 Ammonia 7664-41-7 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased lung function and respiratory symptoms n/a RfC 5 x 10 -1 mg/m3
36 Ammonium sulfamate 7773-06-0 Oral Noncancer Decrease in body weight n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
37 Aniline 62-53-3 Oral Cancer Spleen, combined fibrosarcoma, stromal sarcoma, capsular sarcoma and hemangiosarcoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5.7 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
38 Aniline 62-53-3 Inhalation Noncancer Methemoglobin increase, spleen toxicity n/a RfC 1 x 10 -3 mg/m3
39 Anthracene 120-12-7 Oral Noncancer No observed effects n/a RfD 3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
40 Antimony 7440-36-0 Oral Noncancer Longevity, blood glucose, and cholesterol n/a RfD 4 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
41 Antimony trioxide 1309-64-4 Inhalation Noncancer Pulmonary toxicity, chronic interstitial inflammation n/a RfC 2 x 10 -4 mg/m3
42 Apollo 74115-24-5 Oral Noncancer Liver effects; organ weight changes n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
43 Aramite 140-57-8 Oral Cancer Neoplastic liver nodules and carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.5 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
44 Aramite 140-57-8 Inhalation Cancer Neoplastic liver nodules and carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 7.1 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
45 Aroclor 1016 12674-11-2 Oral Noncancer Reduced birth weights n/a RfD 7 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
46 Aroclor 1254 11097-69-1 Oral Noncancer Ocular exudate, inflamed and prominent Meibomian glands, distorted growth of finger and toe nails; decreased antibody (IgG and IgM) response to sheep erythrocytes n/a RfD 2 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
47 Arsenic, Inorganic 7440-38-2 Oral Cancer Skin cancer A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.5 per mg/kg-day
48 Arsenic, Inorganic 7440-38-2 Oral Noncancer Hyperpigmentation, keratosis and possible vascular complications n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
49 Arsenic, Inorganic 7440-38-2 Inhalation Cancer Lung cancer A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.3 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
50 Arsine 7784-42-1 Inhalation Noncancer Increased hemolysis, abnormal RBC morphology, and increased spleen weight n/a RfC 5 x 10 -5 mg/m3
51 Asbestos 1332-21-4 Inhalation Cancer Lung cancer and mesothelioma A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.3 x 10 -1 per f/mL
52 Assure 76578-14-8 Oral Noncancer Liver cell enlargement n/a RfD 9 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
53 Asulam 3337-71-1 Oral Noncancer Lower ovarian weight, lower liver/body weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
54 Atrazine 1912-24-9 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain n/a RfD 3.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
55 Avermectin B1 65195-55-3 Oral Noncancer Increased retinal folds in weanlings, decreased viability and lactation indices, decreased pup body weight, increase of dead pups at birth n/a RfD 4 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
56 Azobenzene 103-33-3 Oral Cancer Abdominal cavity sarcomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.1 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
57 Azobenzene 103-33-3 Inhalation Cancer Abdominal cavity sarcomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3.1 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
58 Barium and Compounds 7440-39-3 Oral Noncancer Nephropathy n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
59 Baygon 114-26-1 Oral Noncancer Mild cholinergic symptoms and RBD ChE inhibition n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
60 Bayleton 43121-43-3 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain, erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
61 Baythroid 68359-37-5 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weights in males, inflammatory foci in kidneys of females n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
62 Benefin 1861-40-1 Oral Noncancer Depressed erythrocyte counts n/a RfD 3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
63 Benomyl 17804-35-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased pup weanling weights n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
64 Bentazon (Basagran) 25057-89-0 Oral Noncancer Blood loss into the gastrointestinal tract; coagulation defect in male and female dogs n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
65 Benzaldehyde 100-52-7 Oral Noncancer Forestomach lesions, kidney toxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
66 Benzene 71-43-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased lymphocyte count n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
67 Benzene 71-43-2 Inhalation Cancer Leukemia A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 7.8 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
68 Benzene 71-43-2 Oral Cancer Leukemia A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.5 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
69 Benzene 71-43-2 Oral Cancer Leukemia A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5.5 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
70 Benzene 71-43-2 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased lymphocyte count n/a RfC 3 x 10 -2 mg/m3
71 Benzene 71-43-2 Inhalation Cancer Leukemia A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.2 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
72 Benzidine 92-87-5 Inhalation Cancer Bladder tumors A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6.7 x 10 -2 per µg/m3
73 Benzidine 92-87-5 Oral Noncancer Brain cell vacuolization; liver cell alterations in females n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
74 Benzidine 92-87-5 Oral Cancer Bladder tumors A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.3 x 10 2 per mg/kg-day
75 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Inhalation Noncancer Reduced ovulation rate and ovary weight n/a RfC 3 x 10 -6 mg/m3
76 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased embryo/fetal survival n/a RfC 2 x 10 -6 mg/m3
77 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased ovarian follicles and ovary weight n/a RfD 4 x 10 -4 per mg/kg-day
78 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Inhalation Cancer Squamous cell neoplasia in the larynx, pharynx, trachea, nasal cavity, esophagus, and forestomach. Carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
79 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Oral Cancer forestomach, esophagus, tongue, and larynx tumors Carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1 per mg/kg-day
80 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased thymus weight and serum IgM n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
81 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Oral Noncancer Neurobehavioral changes n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
82 Benzoic acid 65-85-0 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects observed n/a RfD 4 mg/kg-day
83 Benzotrichloride 98-07-7 Oral Cancer Lung, adenocarcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.3 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
84 Benzyl chloride 100-44-7 Oral Cancer Thyroid, C-cell adenoma/ carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.7 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
85 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Inhalation Noncancer Beryllium sensitization and progression to CBD n/a RfC 2 x 10 -5 mg/m3
86 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Oral Noncancer Small intestinal lesions n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
87 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Inhalation Cancer Lung cancer B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) (1986 guidelines)
Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined (1996 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.4 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
88 Bidrin 141-66-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased pup survival n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
89 Biphenthrin 82657-04-3 Oral Noncancer Tremors n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
90 Biphenyl 92-52-4 Oral Cancer Liver adenomas or carcinomas Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 8 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
91 Biphenyl 92-52-4 Oral Noncancer Renal papillary mineralization in male F344 rats n/a RfD 5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
92 Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether 108-60-1 Oral Noncancer Decrease in hemoglobin and possible erythrocyte destruction n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
93 Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE) 111-44-4 Oral Cancer Hepatomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.1 per mg/kg-day
94 Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE) 111-44-4 Inhalation Cancer Hepatomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3.3 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
95 Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME) 542-88-1 Inhalation Cancer Respiratory tract tumors A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6.2 x 10 -2 per µg/m3
96 Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME) 542-88-1 Oral Cancer Respiratory tract tumors A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.2 x 10 2 per mg/kg-day
97 Bisphenol A 80-05-7 Oral Noncancer Reduced mean body weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
98 Boron and Compounds 7440-42-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased fetal weight (developmental) n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
99 Bromate 15541-45-4 Oral Cancer Testicular mesothelioma, renal tubular adenoma and carcinoma, and thyroid follicular cell adenoma and carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined (1996 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
100 Bromate 15541-45-4 Oral Noncancer Renal effects: urothelial hyperplasia n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
101 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Oral Noncancer Hepatocellular cytomegaly in male B6C3F1 mice n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
102 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Inhalation Noncancer Hepatocellular cytomegaly in female B6C3F1 mice n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
103 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Inhalation Noncancer Hepatocellular cytomegaly in female B6C3F1 mice n/a RfC 6 x 10 -2 mg/m3
104 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Oral Noncancer Hepatocellular cytomegaly in male B6C3F1 mice n/a RfD 8 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
105 Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 Oral Noncancer Renal cytomegaly n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
106 Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 Oral Cancer Kidney (tubular cell adenoma and tubular cell adenocarcinoma) B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 6.2 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
107 Bromoform 75-25-2 Inhalation Cancer Neoplastic lesions in the large intestine B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.1 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
108 Bromoform 75-25-2 Oral Noncancer Hepatic lesions n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
109 Bromoform 75-25-2 Oral Cancer Neoplastic lesions in the large intestine B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7.9 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
110 Bromomethane 74-83-9 Oral Noncancer Epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach n/a RfD 1.4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
111 Bromomethane 74-83-9 Inhalation Noncancer Degenerative and proliferative lesions of the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity n/a RfC 5 x 10 -3 mg/m3
112 Bromoxynil 1689-84-5 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
113 Bromoxynil octanoate 1689-99-2 Oral Noncancer No effects n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
114 1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 Inhalation Cancer Leukemia Carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
115 1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 Inhalation Noncancer Ovarian atrophy n/a RfC 2 x 10 -3 mg/m3
116 Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) 85-68-7 Oral Noncancer Significantly increased liver-to-body weight and liver-to-brain weight ratios n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
117 Butylate 2008-41-5 Oral Noncancer Increased relative liver weight in male dogs n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
118 Butylphthalyl butylglycolate (BPBG) 85-70-1 Oral Noncancer No adverse effect n/a RfD 1 mg/kg-day
119 Cadmium 7440-43-9 Inhalation Cancer Lung, trachea, bronchus cancer deaths B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.8 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
120 Cadmium 7440-43-9 Oral Noncancer Significant proteinuria n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
121 Cadmium 7440-43-9 Oral Noncancer Significant proteinuria n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
122 Calcium cyanide 592-01-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for cyanide, free is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
123 Caprolactam 105-60-2 Oral Noncancer Reduced offspring body weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
124 Captafol 2425-06-1 Oral Noncancer Kidney and bladder toxicity n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
125 Captan 133-06-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased mean body weights n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
126 Carbaryl 63-25-2 Oral Noncancer Kidney and liver toxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
127 Carbofuran 1563-66-2 Oral Noncancer RBC and plasma cholinesterase inhibition, and testicular and uterine effects n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
128 Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 Oral Noncancer Fetal toxicity/ malformations n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
129 Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 Inhalation Noncancer Peripheral nervous system dysfunction n/a RfC 7 x 10 -1 mg/m3
130 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Oral Noncancer Elevated serum SDH activity n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
131 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Inhalation Noncancer Fatty changes in the liver n/a RfC 1 x 10 -1 mg/m3
132 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Inhalation Cancer Pheochromocytoma Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
133 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
134 Carbosulfan 55285-14-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
135 Carboxin 5234-68-4 Oral Noncancer Reduced weight gain, organ weight changes, increased mortality n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
136 Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds 1306-38-3 Inhalation Noncancer Increased incidence of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in the lungs of male and female rats n/a RfC 9 x 10 -4 mg/m3
137 Chloral hydrate 302-17-0 Oral Noncancer CNS depression and GI irritation in humans n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
138 Chloramben 133-90-4 Oral Noncancer Hepatocyte degeneration n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
139 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Inhalation Noncancer Hepatic effects n/a RfC 7 x 10 -4 mg/m3
140 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Oral Noncancer Hepatic necrosis n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
141 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
142 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3.5 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
143 Chlordecone (Kepone) 143-50-0 Oral Cancer liver hepatocellular carcinoma Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
144 Chlordecone (Kepone) 143-50-0 Oral Noncancer Renal lesions (glomerulosclerosis) in female Wistar rats n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
145 Chlorimuron-ethyl 90982-32-4 Oral Noncancer Increase in WBC, decreased in RBC in females, increase in alkaline phosphatase in males n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
146 Chlorine 7782-50-5 Oral Noncancer No observed adverse effects n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
147 Chlorine cyanide 506-77-4 Oral Noncancer Weight loss, thyroid effects, and myelin degeneration n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
148 Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 Oral Noncancer Neurodevelopmental effects n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
149 Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 Inhalation Noncancer Vascular congestion and peribronchial edema n/a RfC 2 x 10 -4 mg/m3
150 Chlorite (sodium salt) 7758-19-2 Oral Noncancer Neurodevelopmental effects n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
151 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane 75-68-3 Inhalation Noncancer No adverse effects n/a RfC 5 x 10 1 mg/m3
152 2-Chloroacetophenone 532-27-4 Inhalation Noncancer Squamous hyperplasia of the nasal respiratory epithelium n/a RfC 3 x 10 -5 mg/m3
153 p-Chloroaniline 106-47-8 Oral Noncancer Nonneoplastic lesions of splenic capsule n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
154 Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 Oral Noncancer Histopathologic changes in liver n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
155 Chlorobenzilate 510-15-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased stool quantity, food consumption and body weight gains hyperirritability (maternal effects) n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
156 Chlorodifluoromethane 75-45-6 Inhalation Noncancer Increased kidney, adrenal and pituitary weights n/a RfC 5 x 10 1 mg/m3
157 Chloroform 67-66-3 Oral Noncancer Moderate/marked fatty cyst formation in the liver and elevated SGPT n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
158 Chloroform 67-66-3 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.3 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
159 beta-Chloronaphthalene 91-58-7 Oral Noncancer Dyspnea, abnormal appearance, liver enlargement n/a RfD 8 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
160 2-Chlorophenol 95-57-8 Oral Noncancer Reproductive effects n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
161 Chloroprene 126-99-8 Inhalation Noncancer Increase in incidence of olfactory atrophy, alveolar hyperplasia, and splenic hematopoietic proliferation in male F344/N rats, female F344/N rats, and female B6C3F1 mice, respectively n/a RfC 2 x 10 -2 mg/m3
162 Chloroprene 126-99-8 Inhalation Cancer alveolar/ bronchiolar adenoma or carcinoma hemangioma/ hemangiosarcoma (all organs) mammary gland adenocarcinoma, carcinoma, or adenoacanthoma forestomach squamous cell papilloma or carcinoma hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma Harderian gland adenoma or carcinoma skin sarcoma and Zymbal's gland carcinoma Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
163 Chlorothalonil 1897-45-6 Oral Noncancer Renal tubular epithelial vacuolation n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
164 o-Chlorotoluene 95-49-8 Oral Noncancer Decrease in body weight gain n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
165 Chlorpropham 101-21-3 Oral Noncancer Kidney, spleen, liver, and bone marrow toxicity n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
166 Chlorsulfuron 64902-72-3 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
167 Chromium(III), insoluble salts 16065-83-1 Oral Noncancer No effects observed n/a RfD 1.5 mg/kg-day
168 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Inhalation Noncancer Lactate dehydrogenase in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid n/a RfC 1 x 10 -4 mg/m3
169 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Inhalation Noncancer Nasal septum atrophy n/a RfC 8 x 10 -6 mg/m3
170 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Inhalation Cancer Lung cancer A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined (1996 guidelines)
D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.2 x 10 -2 per µg/m3
171 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Oral Noncancer None reported n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
172 Coke oven emissions None Inhalation Cancer Respiratory cancer A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6.2 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
173 Copper cyanide 544-92-3 Oral Noncancer Decreased body and organ weights, histopathologic alterations in liver and kidney n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
174 Cumene 98-82-8 Oral Noncancer Increased average kidney weight in female rats n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
175 Cumene 98-82-8 Inhalation Noncancer Increased kidney weights in female rats and adrenal weights in male and female rats n/a RfC 4 x 10 -1 mg/m3
176 Cyanide, free 57-12-5 Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for cyanide, free is presented in section 1.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. n/a RfD 6.3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
177 Cyanogen 460-19-5 Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for cyanogen is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
178 Cyanogen bromide 506-68-3 Oral Noncancer Weight loss, thyroid effects and myelin degeneration n/a RfD 9 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
179 Cyclohexane 110-82-7 Inhalation Noncancer Reduced pup weights in the F1 and F2 generations n/a RfC 6 mg/m3
180 Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 Oral Noncancer Body weight depression n/a RfD 5 mg/kg-day
181 Cyclohexylamine 108-91-8 Oral Noncancer Testicular damage n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
182 Cyhalothrin/Karate 68085-85-8 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight gain preceding pregnancy reduced body weight gain in offspring during weaning period n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
183 Cypermethrin 52315-07-8 Oral Noncancer G.I. tract disturbances n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
184 Cyromazine 66215-27-8 Oral Noncancer Hematologic effects n/a RfD 7.5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
185 Dacthal 1861-32-1 Oral Noncancer Effects on the lungs, liver, kidney, thyroid and thyroid hormones in males and females and eyes of females n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
186 Dalapon, sodium salt 75-99-0 Oral Noncancer Increased kidney body weight ratio n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
187 Danitol 39515-41-8 Oral Noncancer Tremors n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
188 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) 1163-19-5 Oral Cancer Liver neoplastic nodules or carcinoma (combined) Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7 x 10 -4 per mg/kg-day
189 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) 1163-19-5 Oral Noncancer Neurobehavioral effects n/a RfD 7 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
190 Demeton 8065-48-3 Oral Noncancer ChE inhibition, optic nerve degeneration n/a RfD 4 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
191 Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 117-81-7 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma and adenoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.4 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
192 Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 117-81-7 Oral Noncancer Increased relative liver weight n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
193 Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 103-23-1 Oral Noncancer Changes in body weight and liver weight increased liver weight of male and female parents reduced ossification and slightly dilated ureters in fetuses reduced offspring weight gain, total litter weight, and litter size n/a RfD 6 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
194 Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 103-23-1 Oral Cancer Combined hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.2 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
195 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) 96-12-8 Inhalation Noncancer Testicular effects n/a RfC 2 x 10 -4 mg/m3
196 1,4-Dibromobenzene 106-37-6 Oral Noncancer Liver/body weight ratio and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
197 Dibromochloromethane 124-48-1 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 8.4 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
198 Dibromochloromethane 124-48-1 Oral Noncancer Hepatic lesions n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
199 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Inhalation Noncancer Nasal inflammation n/a RfC 9 x 10 -3 mg/m3
200 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Oral Noncancer Testicular atrophy, liver peliosis, and adrenal cortical degeneration n/a RfD 9 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
201 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Inhalation Cancer Nasal cavity (includes adenoma, adenocarcinoma, papillary adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and or/papilloma), hemangiosarcomas, mesotheliomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
202 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Inhalation Cancer Nasal cavity (includes adenoma, adenocarcinoma, papillary adenoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and or/papilloma), hemangiosarcomas, mesotheliomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
203 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Oral Cancer Forestomach tumors, hemangiosarcomas, thyroid follicular cell adenomas or carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1 mg/kg-day
204 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Oral Cancer Forestomach tumors, hemangiosarcomas, thyroid follicular cell adenomas or carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2 per mg/kg-day
205 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) 84-74-2 Oral Noncancer Increased mortality n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
206 Dicamba 1918-00-9 Oral Noncancer Maternal (reduced weight gain) and fetal toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
207 Dichloroacetic acid 79-43-6 Oral Cancer Hepatoadenoma and Hepatocarcinoma Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (1999 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
208 Dichloroacetic acid 79-43-6 Oral Noncancer Lesions observed in the testes, cerebrum, cerebellum, and liver. n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
209 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects observed n/a RfD 9 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
210 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 Inhalation Noncancer Increased liver weights in P1 males n/a RfC 8 x 10 -1 mg/m3
211 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine 91-94-1 Oral Cancer Mammary adenocarcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4.5 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
212 Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
213 p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethane (DDD) 72-54-8 Oral Cancer Liver tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.4 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
214 p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) 72-55-9 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas, hepatomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3.4 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
215 p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3 Oral Cancer Liver tumors, benign and malignant B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3.4 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
216 p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3 Oral Noncancer Liver lesions n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
217 p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3 Inhalation Cancer Liver tumors, benign and malignant B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 9.7 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
218 1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2 Inhalation Cancer Hemangiosarcomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.6 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
219 1,2-Dichloroethane 107-06-2 Oral Cancer Hemangiosarcomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 9.1 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
220 cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-59-2 Oral Noncancer Increased relative kidney weight in male rats n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
221 trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-60-5 Oral Noncancer Decrease in number of antibody forming cells (AFCs) against sheep red blood cells (sRBCs) in male mice n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
222 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) 75-35-4 Inhalation Noncancer Liver toxicity (fatty change) n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
223 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) 75-35-4 Oral Noncancer Liver toxicity (fatty change) n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
224 Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Oral Noncancer Hepatic effects (hepatic vacuolation, liver foci) n/a RfD 6 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
225 Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Inhalation Noncancer Hepatic effects (hepatic vacuolation) n/a RfC 6 x 10 -1 mg/m3
226 Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas or adenomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
227 Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas or adenomas, bronchoalveolar carcinomas or adenomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1 x 10 -8 per µg/m3
228 2,4-Dichlorophenol 120-83-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased delayed hypersensitivity response n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
229 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB) 94-82-6 Oral Noncancer Internal hemorrhage, mortality n/a RfD 8 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
230 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 94-75-7 Oral Noncancer Hematologic, hepatic and renal toxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
231 1,2-Dichloropropane 78-87-5 Inhalation Noncancer Hyperplasia of the nasal mucosa n/a RfC 4 x 10 -3 mg/m3
232 2,3-Dichloropropanol 616-23-9 Oral Noncancer Myocardial degeneration, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
233 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Oral Cancer Urinary bladder carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
234 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
235 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Inhalation Cancer Bronchioalveolar adenoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
236 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Oral Noncancer Chronic irritation n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
237 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma/carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
238 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Inhalation Noncancer Hypertrophy/ hyperplasia of the nasal respiratory epithelium n/a RfC 2 x 10 -2 mg/m3
239 Dichlorvos 62-73-7 Oral Noncancer Plasma and RBC ChE inhibition in males and females brain ChE inhibition in males n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
240 Dichlorvos 62-73-7 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased brain cholinesterase activity n/a RfC 5 x 10 -4 mg/m3
241 Dichlorvos 62-73-7 Oral Cancer Forestomach tumors, pancreatic acinar adenoma, leukemia B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.9 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
242 Dieldrin 60-57-1 Oral Cancer Liver carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.6 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
243 Dieldrin 60-57-1 Oral Noncancer Liver lesions n/a RfD 5 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
244 Dieldrin 60-57-1 Inhalation Cancer Liver carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.6 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
245 Diesel engine exhaust None Inhalation Noncancer Pulmonary inflammation and histopathology n/a RfC 5 x 10 -3 mg/m3
246 Diethyl phthalate (DEP) 84-66-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased growth rate, food consumption and altered organ weights n/a RfD 8 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
247 Difenzoquat 43222-48-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfD 8 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
248 Diflubenzuron 35367-38-5 Oral Noncancer Methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin formation n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
249 1,1-Difluoroethane 75-37-6 Inhalation Noncancer No adverse effects observed n/a RfC 4 x 10 1 mg/m3
250 Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) 1445-75-6 Oral Noncancer No effects related to treatment n/a RfD 8 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
251 Dimethipin 55290-64-7 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute and relative liver weight n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
252 Dimethoate 60-51-5 Oral Noncancer Brain ChE inhibition n/a RfD 2 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
253 Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) 120-61-6 Oral Noncancer Chronic kidney inflammation n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
254 N-N-Dimethylaniline 121-69-7 Oral Noncancer Splenomegaly, increased splenic hemosiderosis and hematopoiesis n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
255 N,N-Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 Inhalation Noncancer Digestive disturbances and minimal hepatic changes suggestive of liver abnormalities n/a RfC 3 x 10 -2 mg/m3
256 2,4-Dimethylphenol 105-67-9 Oral Noncancer Clinical signs (lethargy, prostration, and ataxia) and hematological changes n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
257 2,6-Dimethylphenol 576-26-1 Oral Noncancer Body weight changes and histopathological changes of internal organs (liver, spleen and kidneys) n/a RfD 6 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
258 3,4-Dimethylphenol 95-65-8 Oral Noncancer Changes in blood pressure and body weight histopathological changes in liver, kidney and spleen n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
259 4,6-Dinitro-o-cyclohexyl phenol 131-89-5 Oral Noncancer Cataract formation n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
260 m-Dinitrobenzene 99-65-0 Oral Noncancer Increased splenic weight n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
261 2,4-Dinitrophenol 51-28-5 Oral Noncancer Cataract formation n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
262 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 121-14-2 Oral Noncancer Neurotoxicity, Heinz bodies and biliary tract hyperplasia n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
263 2,4-/2,6-Dinitrotoluene mixture Various Oral Cancer Liver: hepatocellular carcinomas, neoplastic nodules; mammary gland: adenomas, fibroadenomas, fibromas, adenocarcinomas/ carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 6.8 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
264 Dinoseb 88-85-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased fetal weight n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
265 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
266 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 Inhalation Noncancer Atrophy and respiratory metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium n/a RfC 3 x 10 -2 mg/m3
267 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
268 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 Inhalation Cancer Multiple (nasal, liver, kidney, peritoneal, mammary gland, and Zymbal gland) Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 5 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
269 Diphenamid 957-51-7 Oral Noncancer Liver toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
270 Diphenylamine 122-39-4 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain, and increased liver and kidney weights n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
271 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine 122-66-7 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas and neoplastic liver nodules B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.2 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
272 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine 122-66-7 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas and neoplastic liver nodules B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 8 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
273 Diquat 2764-72-9 Oral Noncancer Minimal lens opacity and cataracts n/a RfD 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
274 Disulfoton 298-04-4 Oral Noncancer ChE inhibition, optic nerve degeneration n/a RfD 4 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
275 1,4-Dithiane 505-29-3 Oral Noncancer Nasal olfactory lesions n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
276 Diuron 330-54-1 Oral Noncancer Abnormal pigments in blood n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
277 Dodine 2439-10-3 Oral Noncancer Thyroid toxicity n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
278 Endosulfan 115-29-7 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight gain in males and females increased incidence of marked progressive glomerulonephrosis and blood vessel aneurysms in males n/a RfD 6 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
279 Endothall 145-73-3 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute and relative weights of stomach and small intestine n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
280 Endrin 72-20-8 Oral Noncancer Mild histological lesions in liver, occasional convulsions n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
281 Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 Inhalation Noncancer Changes in the nasal turbinates n/a RfC 1 x 10 -3 mg/m3
282 Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 Inhalation Cancer Nasal cavity tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.2 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
283 Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 Oral Cancer Papillomas and carcinomas of the forestomach B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 9.9 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
284 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU) 106-88-7 Inhalation Noncancer Degenerative lesions of the nasal cavity n/a RfC 2 x 10 -2 mg/m3
285 Ethephon 16672-87-0 Oral Noncancer Plasma ChE inhibition n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
286 Ethion 563-12-2 Oral Noncancer Plasma cholinesterase inhibition n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
287 2-Ethoxyethanol 110-80-5 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased testis weight, seminiferous tubule degeneration and decreased hemoglobin n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
288 Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) 637-92-3 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 8 x 10 -5 mg/m3
289 Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) 637-92-3 Inhalation Noncancer Increased absolute kidney weight in female rats n/a RfC 4 x 10 1 mg/m3
290 Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) 637-92-3 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute kidney weight in female rats n/a RfD 1 mg/kg-day
291 Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 Oral Noncancer Mortality and body weight loss n/a RfD 9 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
292 Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 Inhalation Noncancer Delayed fetal ossification n/a RfC 1 x 10 1 mg/m3
293 S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) 759-94-4 Oral Noncancer Degenerative cardiomyopathy n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
294 Ethyl ether 60-29-7 Oral Noncancer Depressed body weights n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
295 Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN) 2104-64-5 Oral Noncancer Neurotoxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
296 Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney toxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
297 Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 Inhalation Noncancer Developmental toxicity n/a RfC 1 mg/m3
298 Ethylene glycol 107-21-1 Oral Noncancer Kidney toxicity n/a RfD 2 mg/kg-day
299 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol) 111-76-2 Oral Noncancer Hemosiderin deposition in the liver n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
300 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol) 111-76-2 Inhalation Noncancer Hemosiderin deposition in the liver n/a RfC 1.6 mg/m3
301 Ethylene oxide 75-21-8 Inhalation Cancer Lymphoid cancer, (female) breast cancer Carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
302 Ethylene thiourea (ETU) 96-45-7 Oral Noncancer Increased incidence of thyroid hyperplasia n/a RfD 8 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
303 Ethylphthalyl ethylglycolate (EPEG) 84-72-0 Oral Noncancer Kidney damage and reduced lifespan n/a RfD 3 mg/kg-day
304 Express 101200-48-0 Oral Noncancer Elevated serum bilirubin and AST levels, increased urinary volume n/a RfD 8 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
305 Fenamiphos 22224-92-6 Oral Noncancer ChE inhibition n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
306 Fluometuron 2164-17-2 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
307 Fluoranthene 206-44-0 Oral Noncancer Nephropathy, increased liver weights, hematological alterations, and clinical effects n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
308 Fluorene 86-73-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased RBC, packed cell volume and hemoglobin n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
309 Fluorine (soluble fluoride) 7782-41-4 Oral Noncancer Objectionable dental fluorosis, a cosmetic effect n/a RfD 6 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
310 Fluridone 59756-60-4 Oral Noncancer Glomerulonephritis, atrophic testes, eye keratitis decreased body weight and organ weights n/a RfD 8 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
311 Flurprimidol 56425-91-3 Oral Noncancer Increased incidence of hepatocellular changes including fatty change and vacuolation (M) increased susceptibility to stress factors (F) n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
312 Flutolanil 66332-96-5 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight and body weight gains in both doses increased liver weights at high dose n/a RfD 6 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
313 Fluvalinate 69409-94-5 Oral Noncancer Decreases in body weight gain increase in plantar ulcer (females) n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
314 Folpet 133-07-3 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain, altered serum chemistry parameters (decreased serum cholesterol, total protein, and serum albumin and globulin levels) n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
315 Fonofos 944-22-9 Oral Noncancer Cholinesterase inhibition, cholinergic symptoms, and increased liver weight n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
316 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Inhalation Cancer Squamous cell carcinoma B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.3 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
317 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Oral Noncancer Reduced weight gain, histopathology in rats n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
318 Fosetyl-al 39148-24-8 Oral Noncancer Slight testicular degeneration n/a RfD 3 mg/kg-day
319 Furan 110-00-9 Oral Noncancer Hepatic lesions n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
320 Furfural 98-01-1 Oral Noncancer Mild hepatocellular vacuolization n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
321 Furmecyclox 60568-05-0 Oral Cancer Combined liver nodules and carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
322 Glufosinate-ammonium 77182-82-2 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute and relative kidney weights in males n/a RfD 4 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
323 Glycidaldehyde 765-34-4 Oral Noncancer Weight gain retardation, enlarged adrenals, hydropic renal pelvis and hematopoietic effects n/a RfD 4 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
324 Glyphosate 1071-83-6 Oral Noncancer Increased incidence of renal tubular dilation in F3b offspring n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
325 Haloxyfop-methyl 69806-40-2 Oral Noncancer Reduced relative kidney weights in F0, F1, and F2b adults; reduced fertility in the F1/F2b generation n/a RfD 5 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
326 Harmony 79277-27-3 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight gains in males, reduced serum sodium in males and females n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
327 Heptachlor 76-44-8 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.3 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
328 Heptachlor 76-44-8 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4.5 per mg/kg-day
329 Heptachlor 76-44-8 Oral Noncancer Liver weight increases in males n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
330 Heptachlor epoxide 1024-57-3 Oral Noncancer Increased liver-to-body weight ratio in both males and females n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
331 Heptachlor epoxide 1024-57-3 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 9.1 per mg/kg-day
332 Heptachlor epoxide 1024-57-3 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.6 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
333 Hexabromobenzene 87-82-1 Oral Noncancer Induced serum carboxylesterase activity, increased relative liver weight, increased liver porphyrins n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
334 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153) 68631-49-2 Oral Noncancer Neurobehavioral effects n/a RfD 2 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
335 Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.6 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
336 Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.6 per mg/kg-day
337 Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 Oral Noncancer Liver effects n/a RfD 8 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
338 Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 Inhalation Cancer Renal tubular adenomas and adenocarcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.2 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
339 Hexachlorobutadiene 87-68-3 Oral Cancer Renal tubular adenomas and adenocarcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7.8 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
340 alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) 319-84-6 Inhalation Cancer Hepatic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.8 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
341 alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH) 319-84-6 Oral Cancer Hepatic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 6.3 per mg/kg-day
342 beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) 319-85-7 Oral Cancer Hepatic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.8 per mg/kg-day
343 beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (beta-HCH) 319-85-7 Inhalation Cancer Hepatic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 5.3 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
344 gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) 58-89-9 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
345 technical Hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) 608-73-1 Inhalation Cancer Liver nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 5.1 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
346 technical Hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) 608-73-1 Oral Cancer Liver nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.8 per mg/kg-day
347 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) 77-47-4 Inhalation Noncancer Suppurative inflammation of the nose n/a RfC 2 x 10 -4 mg/m3
348 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) 77-47-4 Oral Noncancer Chronic irritation n/a RfD 6 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
349 Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 57653-85-7 Inhalation Cancer Liver tumors (adenomas and carcinomas; neoplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas) B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.3 per µg/m3
350 Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (HxCDD), mixture of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 57653-85-7 Oral Cancer Liver tumors (adenomas and carcinomas; neoplastic nodules and hepatocellular carcinomas) B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 6.2 x 10 3 per mg/kg-day
351 Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 Oral Cancer Renal adenomas and carcinomas (combined) Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
352 Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 Oral Noncancer Atrophy and degeneration of renal tubules n/a RfD 7 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
353 Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 Inhalation Noncancer Neurotoxicity (tremors and ruffled pelt) n/a RfC 3 x 10 -2 mg/m3
354 Hexachlorophene 70-30-4 Oral Noncancer Swollen salivary glands, status spongiosis in brain and optic nerve n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
355 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Oral Cancer Liver (hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas) and lung (alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas or carcinomas) Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 8 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
356 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Oral Noncancer Suppurative prostatitis in F344 rats n/a RfD 8 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
357 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Oral Noncancer Convulsions in F344 rats n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
358 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Oral Noncancer Kidney medullary papillary necrosis in F344 rats n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
359 1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate 822-06-0 Inhalation Noncancer Degeneration of olfactory epithelium n/a RfC 1 x 10 -5 mg/m3
360 n-Hexane 110-54-3 Inhalation Noncancer Peripheral neuropathy (decreased MCV at 12 weeks) n/a RfC 7 x 10 -1 mg/m3
361 2-Hexanone 591-78-6 Oral Noncancer Axonal swelling of the peripheral nerve n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
362 2-Hexanone 591-78-6 Inhalation Noncancer Motor conduction velocity of the sciatic-tibial nerve n/a RfC 3 x 10 -2 mg/m3
363 Hexazinone 51235-04-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfD 3.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
364 Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate 302-01-2 Inhalation Cancer Nasal cavity adenoma or adenocarcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.9 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
365 Hydrazine/Hydrazine sulfate 302-01-2 Oral Cancer Hepatoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3 per mg/kg-day
366 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts Various Inhalation Noncancer Thyroid enlargement and altered iodide uptake n/a RfC 8 x 10 -4 mg/m3
367 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts Various Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats n/a RfD 6 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
368 Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 Inhalation Noncancer Hyperplasia of nasal mucosa larynx and trachea n/a RfC 2 x 10 -2 mg/m3
369 Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 Inhalation Noncancer Nasal lesions of the olfactory mucosa n/a RfC 2 x 10 -3 mg/m3
370 Imazalil 35554-44-0 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
371 Imazaquin 81335-37-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain, skeletal myopathy, slight anemia, bone marrow hyperplasia, elevated serum SGOT, SGPT, CPK n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
372 Iprodione 36734-19-7 Oral Noncancer Increased RBC Heinz bodies; decreased prostate weight n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
373 Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 Oral Noncancer Hypoactivity and ataxia n/a RfD 3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
374 Isophorone 78-59-1 Oral Cancer Preputial gland carcinoma C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 9.5 x 10 -4 per mg/kg-day
375 Isophorone 78-59-1 Oral Noncancer Kidney pathology n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
376 Isopropalin 33820-53-0 Oral Noncancer Reduced hemoglobin concentration, lowered hematocrits, and altered organ weights n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
377 Isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid (IMPA) 1832-54-8 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects observed n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
378 Isoxaben 82558-50-7 Oral Noncancer Increased BUN; decreased serum AP and AST; decreased food consumption efficiency; increased heart/body weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
379 Lactofen 77501-63-4 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute and relative liver weight; hepatocytomegaly in males n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
380 Libby Amphibole Asbestos 1318-09-8 Inhalation Noncancer Localized pleural thickening n/a RfC 9 x 10 -5 fiber/cc
381 Libby Amphibole Asbestos 1318-09-8 Inhalation Cancer Cancer mortality from lung cancer and mesothelioma Carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.7 x 10 -1 per fiber/cc
382 Linuron 330-55-2 Oral Noncancer Abnormal blood pigment n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
383 Londax 83055-99-6 Oral Noncancer Liver effects n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
384 Malathion 121-75-5 Oral Noncancer RBC ChE depression n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
385 Maleic anhydride 108-31-6 Oral Noncancer Renal lesions n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
386 Maleic hydrazide 123-33-1 Oral Noncancer Renal dysfunction n/a RfD 5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
387 Maneb 12427-38-2 Oral Noncancer Increased thyroid weight n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
388 Manganese 7439-96-5 Inhalation Noncancer Impairment of neurobehavioral function n/a RfC 5 x 10 -5 mg/m3
389 Manganese 7439-96-5 Oral Noncancer CNS effects n/a RfD 1.4 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
390 Mepiquat chloride 24307-26-4 Oral Noncancer Sedation and tonoclonic spasms decreased food intake and body weights hematologic effects n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
391 Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) 7487-94-7 Oral Noncancer Autoimmune effects (autoimmune glomerulonephritis) n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
392 Mercury, elemental 7439-97-6 Inhalation Noncancer Hand tremor; increases in memory disturbances; slight subjective and objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction n/a RfC 3 x 10 -4 mg/m3
393 Merphos 150-50-5 Oral Noncancer Ataxia, delayed neurotoxicity and weight loss n/a RfD 3 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
394 Merphos oxide 78-48-8 Oral Noncancer Ataxia, delayed neurotoxicity and weight loss n/a RfD 3 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
395 Metalaxyl 57837-19-1 Oral Noncancer Increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels and increased liver-to-brain weight ratio n/a RfD 6 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
396 Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 Oral Noncancer Increased SGOT and SGPT levels n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
397 Methamidophos 10265-92-6 Oral Noncancer ChE inhibition n/a RfD 5 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
398 Methanol 67-56-1 Inhalation Noncancer Reduced brain weight in rat pups at 6 weeks of age n/a RfC 2 x 10 1 mg/m3
399 Methanol 67-56-1 Oral Noncancer Extra cervical ribs n/a RfD 2 mg/kg-day
400 Methidathion 950-37-8 Oral Noncancer Liver toxicity n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
401 Methomyl 16752-77-5 Oral Noncancer Kidney and spleen pathology n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
402 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 Oral Noncancer Excessive loss of litters n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
403 2-Methoxyethanol 109-86-4 Inhalation Noncancer Testicular effects n/a RfC 2 x 10 -2 mg/m3
404 Methyl chloride 74-87-3 Inhalation Noncancer Cerebellar lesions n/a RfC 9 x 10 -2 mg/m3
405 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 78-93-3 Oral Noncancer Decreased pup body weight n/a RfD 6 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
406 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 78-93-3 Inhalation Noncancer Developmental toxicity (skeletal variations) n/a RfC 5 mg/m3
407 Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) 108-10-1 Inhalation Noncancer Reduced fetal body weight, skeletal variations, and increased fetal death in mice, and skeletal variations in rats. n/a RfC 3 mg/m3
408 Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 Inhalation Noncancer Degeneration/ atrophy of olfactory epithelium (male rats) n/a RfC 7 x 10 -1 mg/m3
409 Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 Oral Noncancer None n/a RfD 1.4 mg/kg-day
410 Methyl parathion 298-00-0 Oral Noncancer RBC, ChE inhibition; reduced hemoglobin, hematocrit and RBCs n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
411 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) 1634-04-4 Inhalation Noncancer Increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weights and increased severity of spontaneous renal lesions (females), increased prostration (females), and swollen periocular tissue (males and females) n/a RfC 3 mg/m3
412 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB) 94-81-5 Oral Noncancer Male reproductive toxicity and other effects (including decreased body weight gain), increased liver and kidney weights n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
413 2-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP) 93-65-2 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute and relative kidney weights n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
414 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) 94-74-6 Oral Noncancer Kidney and liver toxicity n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
415 Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (monomeric MDI) and polymeric MDI (PMDI) 101-68-8 Inhalation Noncancer Hyperplasia of olfactory epithelium n/a RfC 6 x 10 -4 mg/m3
416 4,4'-Methylene bis(N,N'-dimethyl)aniline 101-61-1 Oral Cancer Thyroid, follicular cell carcinoma/ adenoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4.6 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
417 Methylmercury (MeHg) 22967-92-6 Oral Noncancer Developmental neuropsychological impairment n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
418 Methylmercury (MeHg) 22967-92-6 Oral Noncancer Developmental neuropsychological impairment n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
419 2-Methylnaphthalene 91-57-6 Oral Noncancer Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
420 2-Methylphenol 95-48-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weights and neurotoxicity n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
421 3-Methylphenol 108-39-4 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weights and neurotoxicity n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
422 Metolachlor 51218-45-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain, decreased pup weight and parental food consumption n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
423 Metribuzin 21087-64-9 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney effects, decreased body weight, mortality n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
424 Mirex 2385-85-5 Oral Noncancer Liver cytomegaly, fatty metamorphosis, angiectasis; thyroid cystic follicles n/a RfD 2 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
425 Molinate 2212-67-1 Oral Noncancer Reproductive toxicity n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
426 Molybdenum 7439-98-7 Oral Noncancer Increased uric acid levels n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
427 Monochloramine 10599-90-3 Oral Noncancer No observed effects n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
428 Naled 300-76-5 Oral Noncancer Brain ChE inhibition n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
429 Naphthalene 91-20-3 Inhalation Noncancer Nasal effects: hyperplasia and metaplasia in respiratory and olfactory epithelium, respectively n/a RfC 3 x 10 -3 mg/m3
430 Naphthalene 91-20-3 Oral Noncancer Decreased mean terminal body weight in males n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
431 Napropamide 15299-99-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain in parental animals and pups n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
432 Nickel refinery dust None Inhalation Cancer Lung cancer A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.4 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
433 Nickel subsulfide 12035-72-2 Inhalation Cancer Lung cancer A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.8 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
434 Nickel, soluble salts Various Oral Noncancer Decreased body and organ weights n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
435 Nitrate 14797-55-8 Oral Noncancer Early clinical signs of methemoglobinemia in excess of 10% (0-3 months old infants formula) n/a RfD 1.6 mg/kg-day
436 Nitrite 14797-65-0 Oral Noncancer Methemoglobinemia n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
437 Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 Oral Noncancer Increased methemoglobin levels n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
438 Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 Inhalation Noncancer Bronchiolization of the alveoli and olfactory degeneration n/a RfC 9 x 10 -3 mg/m3
439 Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 Inhalation Cancer Liver hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, kidney tubular adenomas or carcinomas, thyroid follicular cell adenomas or carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
440 Nitroguanidine 556-88-7 Oral Noncancer Reduced weight gain in female rats, maternal/ fetal toxicity in rats, and equivocal evidence of developmental toxicity in rabbits n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
441 2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 Inhalation Noncancer Liver focal vacuolization and nodules n/a RfC 2 x 10 -2 mg/m3
442 N-Nitroso-N-methylethylamine 10595-95-6 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.2 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
443 N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine 924-16-3 Oral Cancer Bladder and esophagus tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5.4 per mg/kg-day
444 N-Nitroso-di-n-butylamine 924-16-3 Inhalation Cancer Bladder and esophagus tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.6 x 10 -3 per µg/m3
445 N-Nitrosodi-N-propylamine 621-64-7 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7 per mg/kg-day
446 N-Nitrosodiethanolamine 1116-54-7 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocellular carcinoma and adenoma and neoplastic nodules B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.8 per mg/kg-day
447 N-Nitrosodiethylamine 55-18-5 Oral Cancer Liver tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.5 x 10 2 per mg/kg-day
448 N-Nitrosodiethylamine 55-18-5 Inhalation Cancer Liver tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.3 x 10 -2 per µg/m3
449 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Inhalation Cancer Liver tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.4 x 10 -2 per µg/m3
450 N-Nitrosodimethylamine 62-75-9 Oral Cancer Liver tumors B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5.1 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
451 N-Nitrosodiphenylamine 86-30-6 Oral Cancer Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4.9 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
452 N-Nitrosopyrrolidine 930-55-2 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma and adenoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.1 per mg/kg-day
453 N-Nitrosopyrrolidine 930-55-2 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma and adenoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 6.1 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
454 Norflurazon 27314-13-2 Oral Noncancer Liver and thyroid effects n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
455 NuStar 85509-19-9 Oral Noncancer Liver cell enlargement n/a RfD 7 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
456 Octabromodiphenyl ether 32536-52-0 Oral Noncancer Induction of hepatic enzymes; liver histopathology n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
457 Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) 2691-41-0 Oral Noncancer Hepatic lesions n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
458 Oryzalin 19044-88-3 Oral Noncancer Increases in serum cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and relative liver and kidney weights, and decreases in alanine transaminase and adrenal weights n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
459 Oxadiazon 19666-30-9 Oral Noncancer Increased levels of serum proteins and increased liver weights n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
460 Oxamyl 23135-22-0 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain and food consumption n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
461 Oxyfluorfen 42874-03-3 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute liver weight and nonneoplastic lesions n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
462 Paclobutrazol 76738-62-0 Oral Noncancer Elevated liver weights, serum cholesterol, hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, and alanine transaminase levels n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
463 Paraquat 1910-42-5 Oral Noncancer Chronic pneumonitis n/a RfD 4.5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
464 Pendimethalin 40487-42-1 Oral Noncancer Increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and liver weight, and hepatic lesions n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
465 Pentabromodiphenyl ether 32534-81-9 Oral Noncancer Induction of hepatic enzymes n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
466 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) 60348-60-9 Oral Noncancer Neurobehavioral effects n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
467 Pentachlorobenzene 608-93-5 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney toxicity n/a RfD 8 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
468 Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) 82-68-8 Oral Noncancer Liver toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
469 Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas and adrenal benign or malignant pheochromocytomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
470 Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 Oral Noncancer Hepatotoxicity n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
471 Perchlorate (ClO4) and Perchlorate Salts 7790-98-9 Oral Noncancer Radioactive iodide uptake inhibition (RAIU) in the thyroid n/a RfD 7 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
472 Permethrin 52645-53-1 Oral Noncancer Increased liver weights n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
473 Phenmedipham 13684-63-4 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
474 Phenol 108-95-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased maternal weight gain n/a RfD 3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
475 m-Phenylenediamine 108-45-2 Oral Noncancer Increased relative and absolute liver weights and degenerative liver lesions n/a RfD 6 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
476 Phenylmercuric acetate 62-38-4 Oral Noncancer Renal damage n/a RfD 8 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
477 Phosgene 75-44-5 Inhalation Noncancer Collagen staining indicative of fibrosis n/a RfC 3 x 10 -4 mg/m3
478 Phosmet 732-11-6 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight (males), liver cell vacuolation, cholinesterase inhibition n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
479 Phosphine 7803-51-2 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfC 3 x 10 -4 mg/m3
480 Phosphine 7803-51-2 Oral Noncancer Body weight and clinical parameters n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
481 Phosphoric acid 7664-38-2 Inhalation Noncancer Bronchiolar fibrosis n/a RfC 1 x 10 -2 mg/m3
482 Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 Oral Noncancer Lung and kidney histopathology n/a RfD 2 mg/kg-day
483 Picloram 1918-02-1 Oral Noncancer Increased liver weights n/a RfD 7 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
484 Pirimiphos-methyl 29232-93-7 Oral Noncancer Transient plasma ChE depression n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
485 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 1336-36-3 Inhalation Cancer Liver hepatocellular adenomas, carcinomas, cholangiomas, or cholangiocarcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
486 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) 1336-36-3 Oral Cancer Liver hepatocellular adenomas, carcinomas, cholangiomas, or cholangiocarcinomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2 per mg/kg-day
487 Potassium cyanide 151-50-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for potassium cyanide is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
488 Potassium silver cyanide 506-61-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for potassium cyanide is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
489 Prochloraz 67747-09-5 Oral Cancer Liver adenoma/ carcinoma combined C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.5 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
490 Prochloraz 67747-09-5 Oral Noncancer Increase in SAP and liver weights, liver histopathology n/a RfD 9 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
491 Prometon 1610-18-0 Oral Noncancer No treatment related effects observed n/a RfD 1.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
492 Prometryn 7287-19-6 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney degeneration and bone marrow atrophy n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
493 Pronamide 23950-58-5 Oral Noncancer No effects n/a RfD 7.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
494 Propachlor 1918-16-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased weight gain, food consumption increased relative liver weights n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
495 Propanil 709-98-8 Oral Noncancer Increased relative spleen weight in females n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
496 Propargite 2312-35-8 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight gain (maternal), increased resorption, reduced body weight (fetal), delayed ossification n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
497 Propargyl alcohol 107-19-7 Oral Noncancer Renal and hepatotoxicity n/a RfD 2 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
498 Propazine 139-40-2 Oral Noncancer Decrease in body weight n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
499 Propham 122-42-9 Oral Noncancer Increase in male spleen weight and ChE depression in females n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
500 Propiconazole 60207-90-1 Oral Noncancer Gastric mucosal irritation n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
501 Propionaldehyde 123-38-6 Inhalation Noncancer Atrophy of olfactory epithelium n/a RfC 8 x 10 -3 mg/m3
502 Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) 107-98-2 Inhalation Noncancer Mild reversible sedation n/a RfC 2 mg/m3
503 Propylene oxide 75-56-9 Inhalation Noncancer Nest-like infolds of the nasal respiratory epithelium n/a RfC 3 x 10 -2 mg/m3
504 Propylene oxide 75-56-9 Inhalation Cancer Nasal cavity hemangioma or hemangiosarcoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3.7 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
505 Propylene oxide 75-56-9 Oral Cancer Forestomach, squamous cell carcinoma B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.4 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
506 Pursuit 81335-77-5 Oral Noncancer Decreased packed cell volume, hemoglobin, erythrocytes in females n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
507 Pydrin 51630-58-1 Oral Noncancer Neurological dysfunction n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
508 Pyrene 129-00-0 Oral Noncancer Kidney effects (renal tubular pathology, decreased kidney weights) n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
509 Pyridine 110-86-1 Oral Noncancer Increased liver weight n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
510 Quinalphos 13593-03-8 Oral Noncancer No adverse effects reported n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
511 Quinoline 91-22-5 Oral Cancer Hepatic hemangioendotheliomas or hemangiosarcomas B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3 per mg/kg-day
512 Resmethrin 10453-86-8 Oral Noncancer Reproductive toxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
513 Rotenone 83-79-4 Oral Noncancer Reduced pup weight n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
514 Savey 78587-05-0 Oral Noncancer Hypertrophy of adrenal cortex (both sexes) hematologic effects (males) n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
515 Selenious acid 7783-00-8 Oral Noncancer Clinical selenosis n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
516 Selenium and Compounds 7782-49-2 Oral Noncancer Clinical selenosis n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
517 Sethoxydim 74051-80-2 Oral Noncancer Mild anemia in males n/a RfD 9 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
518 Silver 7440-22-4 Oral Noncancer Argyria n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
519 Silver cyanide 506-64-9 Oral Noncancer Weight loss, thyroid effects, and myelin degeneration n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
520 Simazine 122-34-9 Oral Noncancer Reduction in weight gains hematological changes in females n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
521 Sodium azide 26628-22-8 Oral Noncancer Clinical sign (e.g., hunched postures) and reduced body weight n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
522 Sodium cyanide 143-33-9 Oral Noncancer Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for potassium cyanide is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
523 Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate 148-18-5 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
524 Sodium fluoroacetate 62-74-8 Oral Noncancer Increased heart weight in females and males; decreased testis weight and altered spermatogenesis in males. n/a RfD 2 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
525 Strontium 7440-24-6 Oral Noncancer Rachitic bone n/a RfD 6 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
526 Strychnine 57-24-9 Oral Noncancer Toxicity/histopathology n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
527 Styrene 100-42-5 Inhalation Noncancer CNS effects n/a RfC 1 mg/m3
528 Styrene 100-42-5 Oral Noncancer Red blood cell and liver effects n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
529 Systhane 88671-89-0 Oral Noncancer Testicular atrophy n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
530 Tebuthiuron 34014-18-1 Oral Noncancer Depressed body weight gain in F1 females n/a RfD 7 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
531 Terbacil 5902-51-2 Oral Noncancer Increase in thyroid/body weight ratio; slight increase in liver weights; elevated alkaline phosphatase n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
532 Terbutryn 886-50-0 Oral Noncancer Hematologic effects in females n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
533 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) 5436-43-1 Oral Noncancer Neurobehavioral effects n/a RfD 1 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
534 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 95-94-3 Oral Noncancer Kidney lesions n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
535 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1746-01-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased sperm count and motility in men exposed to TCDD as boys / Increased TSH in neonates n/a RfD 7 x 10 -10 mg/kg-day
536 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1746-01-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased sperm count and motility in men exposed to TCDD as boys / Increased TSH in neonates n/a RfD 7 x 10 -10 mg/kg-day
537 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 630-20-6 Oral Noncancer Mineralization of the kidneys in males, hepatic clear cell change in females n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
538 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 630-20-6 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.6 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
539 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 630-20-6 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular adenoma or carcinoma C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 7.4 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
540 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 Oral Noncancer Increased relative liver weight in rats n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
541 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 Oral Noncancer Increased relative liver weight in rats n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
542 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 Oral Cancer hepatocellular carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
543 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 Oral Noncancer (See Note) n/a RfD 6 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
544 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 Inhalation Noncancer (See Note) n/a RfC 4 x 10 -2 mg/m3
545 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 2.6 x 10 -7 per µg/m3
546 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 2.1 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
547 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 58-90-2 Oral Noncancer Increased liver weights and centrilobular hypertrophy n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
548 Tetrachlorovinphos 961-11-5 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight gain, increased liver and kidney weights, and RBC ChE inhibition n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
549 Tetraethyl lead 78-00-2 Oral Noncancer Histopathology of liver and thymus n/a RfD 1 x 10 -7 mg/kg-day
550 Tetraethyldithiopyrophosphate 3689-24-5 Oral Noncancer Depressed RBC and plasma cholinesterase activity n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
551 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane 811-97-2 Inhalation Noncancer Leydig cell hyperplasia n/a RfC 8 x 10 1 mg/m3
552 Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 Oral Noncancer Decreased pup body weight gain n/a RfD 9 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
553 Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 Inhalation Noncancer Increased liver weight and centrilobular cytomegaly, CNS effects (narcosis) n/a RfC 2 mg/m3
554 Thiobencarb 28249-77-6 Oral Noncancer Decrease in body weight, increase in BUN n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
555 Thiophanate-methyl 23564-05-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight, decreased spermatogenesis, and histological evidence of hyperthyroidism n/a RfD 8 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
556 Thiram 137-26-8 Oral Noncancer Neurotoxicity n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
557 Toluene 108-88-3 Inhalation Noncancer Neurological effects in occupationally-exposed workers n/a RfC 5 mg/m3
558 Toluene 108-88-3 Oral Noncancer Increased kidney weight n/a RfD 8 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
559 2,4-/2,6-Toluene diisocyanate mixture (TDI) 26471-62-5 Inhalation Noncancer Chronic lung-function decline n/a RfC 7 x 10 -5 mg/m3
560 Toxaphene 8001-35-2 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas and neoplastic nodules B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.1 per mg/kg-day
561 Toxaphene 8001-35-2 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinomas and neoplastic nodules B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3.2 x 10 -4 per µg/m3
562 Tralomethrin 66841-25-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight gain in males increased food and water consumption in males and females n/a RfD 7.5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
563 Triallate 2303-17-5 Oral Noncancer Increased hemosiderin deposition, serum alkaline phosphatase, and liver weight in females n/a RfD 1.3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
564 Triasulfuron 82097-50-5 Oral Noncancer Centrilobular hepatocytomegaly in males n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
565 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene 615-54-3 Oral Noncancer Increased liver-to-body weight ratio and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
566 Tributyltin oxide (TBTO) 56-35-9 Oral Noncancer Immunosuppression n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
567 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) 76-13-1 Oral Noncancer Psychomotor impairment n/a RfD 3 x 10 1 mg/kg-day
568 Trichloroacetic acid 76-03-9 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
569 Trichloroacetic acid 76-03-9 Oral Noncancer Hepatocellular necrosis n/a RfD 2 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
570 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 120-82-1 Oral Noncancer Increased adrenal weights; vacuolization of zona fasciculata in the cortex n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
571 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Performance on neurobehavioral tests n/a RfC 5 mg/m3
572 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight n/a RfD 2 mg/kg-day
573 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Oral Noncancer Reduced body weight n/a RfD 7 mg/kg-day
574 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Liver histopathologic changes n/a RfC 5 mg/m3
575 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Liver histopathologic changes n/a RfC 5 mg/m3
576 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Performance on neurobehavioral tests n/a RfC 6 mg/m3
577 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Performance on neurobehavioral tests n/a RfC 7 mg/m3
578 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Performance on neurobehavioral tests n/a RfC 7 mg/m3
579 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Inhalation Noncancer Performance on neurobehavioral tests n/a RfC 9 mg/m3
580 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 Oral Noncancer Clinical serum chemistry (effects on erythrocytes and depressed humoral immune status) n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
581 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 Oral Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5.7 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
582 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 Inhalation Cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 1.6 x 10 -5 per µg/m3
583 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 Inhalation Noncancer (See Note) n/a RfC 2 x 10 -3 mg/m3
584 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 Inhalation Cancer Renal cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and liver tumors Carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.1 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
585 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 Oral Cancer Renal cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and liver tumors Carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 4.6 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
586 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 Oral Noncancer (See Note) n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
587 Trichlorofluoromethane 75-69-4 Oral Noncancer Survival and histopathology (pleuritis and pericarditis) n/a RfD 3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
588 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 95-95-4 Oral Noncancer Liver and kidney pathology n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
589 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 88-06-2 Inhalation Cancer Leukemia B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 3.1 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
590 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol 88-06-2 Oral Cancer Leukemia B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.1 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
591 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP) 93-72-1 Oral Noncancer Histopathological changes in liver n/a RfD 8 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
592 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) 93-76-5 Oral Noncancer Increased urinary coproporphyrins n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
593 1,1,2-Trichloropropane 598-77-6 Oral Noncancer Mild lesions in liver, kidney and thyroid n/a RfD 5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
594 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 Oral Cancer alimentary system squamous cell neoplasms, liver hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas, Harderian gland adenomas, uterine/cervix adenomas or carcinomas Likely to be carcinogenic to humans (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3 x 10 1 per mg/kg-day
595 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 Oral Noncancer Increased absolute liver weight in male rats n/a RfD 4 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
596 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 Inhalation Noncancer peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia in male rats n/a RfC 3 x 10 -4 mg/m3
597 Tridiphane 58138-08-2 Oral Noncancer Decreased fertility index and depressed body weight of dams n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
598 Triethylamine 121-44-8 Inhalation Noncancer Inflammation of the nasal passage n/a RfC 7 x 10 -3 mg/m3
599 Trifluralin 1582-09-8 Oral Noncancer Increased liver weights; increase in methemoglobin n/a RfD 7.5 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
600 Trifluralin 1582-09-8 Oral Cancer Combined renal pelvis carcinomas, urinary bladder papillomas and/or thyroid adenomas and carcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7.7 x 10 -3 per mg/kg-day
601 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
602 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
603 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Inhalation Noncancer Inflammatory lung lesions n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
604 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfC 6 x 10 -2 mg/m3
605 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 None
606 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased segmented neutrophils n/a RfC 6 x 10 -2 mg/m3
607 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased clotting time n/a RfC 8 x 10 -2 mg/m3
608 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfC 6 x 10 -2 mg/m3
609 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
610 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/m3
611 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Oral Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
612 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased maternal weight n/a RfC 3 mg/m3
613 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased fetal weight n/a RfC 4 mg/m3
614 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Inhalation Noncancer Inflammatory lung lesions n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
615 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfC 6 x 10 -2 mg/m3
616 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased maternal weight n/a RfC 4 x 10 -1 mg/m3
617 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased fetal weight n/a RfC 4 mg/m3
618 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Inhalation Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
619 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfD 4 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
620 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Oral Noncancer Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats n/a RfD 1 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
621 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 99-35-4 Oral Noncancer Methemoglobinemia and spleen-erythroid cell hyperplasia n/a RfD 3 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
622 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 118-96-7 Oral Noncancer Liver effects n/a RfD 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
623 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 118-96-7 Oral Cancer Urinary bladder, transitional cell papilloma and transitional squamous cell carcinomas C (Possible human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 3 x 10 -2 per mg/kg-day
624 Uranium, soluble salts Various Oral Noncancer Initial body weight loss moderate nephrotoxicity n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
625 Vanadium pentoxide 1314-62-1 Oral Noncancer Decreased hair cystine n/a RfD 9 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
626 Vernam 1929-77-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight n/a RfD 1 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
627 Vinclozolin 50471-44-8 Oral Noncancer Organ weight changes (adrenal and kidney) n/a RfD 2.5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
628 Vinyl acetate 108-05-4 Inhalation Noncancer Nasal epithelial lesions n/a RfC 2 x 10 -1 mg/m3
629 Vinyl bromide 593-60-2 Inhalation Noncancer Hypertrophy, basophilic and eosinophilic foci, in the liver n/a RfC 3 x 10 -3 mg/m3
630 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Inhalation Cancer Liver angiosarcomas, angiomas, hepatomas, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 8.8 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
631 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Oral Cancer Total of liver angiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7.2 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
632 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Oral Cancer Total of liver angiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 7.5 x 10 -1 per mg/kg-day
633 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Oral Cancer Total of liver angiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.4 per mg/kg-day
634 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Inhalation Cancer Liver angiosarcomas, angiomas, hepatomas, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.4 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
635 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Inhalation Cancer Liver angiosarcomas, angiomas, hepatomas, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 8.8 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
636 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Oral Cancer Total of liver angiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 1.5 per mg/kg-day
637 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Oral Noncancer Liver cell polymorphism n/a RfD 3 x 10 -3 mg/kg-day
638 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Inhalation Noncancer Liver cell polymorphism n/a RfC 1 x 10 -1 mg/m3
639 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Inhalation Cancer Liver angiosarcomas, angiomas, hepatomas, and neoplastic nodules A (Human carcinogen) (1986 guidelines)
Known/likely human carcinogen (1996 guidelines)
Inhalation Unit Risk 4.4 x 10 -6 per µg/m3
640 Warfarin 81-81-2 Oral Noncancer Increased prothrombin time n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
641 White phosphorus 7723-14-0 Oral Noncancer Parturition mortality; forelimb hair loss n/a RfD 2 x 10 -5 mg/kg-day
642 Xylenes 1330-20-7 Oral Noncancer Decreased body weight, increased mortality n/a RfD 2 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
643 Xylenes 1330-20-7 Inhalation Noncancer Impaired motor coordination (decreased rotarod performance) n/a RfC 1 x 10 -1 mg/m3
644 Zinc and Compounds 7440-66-6 Oral Noncancer Decreases in erythrocyte Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (ESOD) activity in healthy adult male and female volunteers n/a RfD 3 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
645 Zinc cyanide 557-21-1 Oral Noncancer Weight loss, thyroid effects, and myelin degeneration n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
646 Zinc phosphide 1314-84-7 Oral Noncancer Reduction of food intake and body weight n/a RfD 3 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
647 Zineb 12122-67-7 Oral Noncancer Thyroid hyperplasia n/a RfD 5 x 10 -2 mg/kg-day
648 n-Butanol 71-36-3 Oral Noncancer Hypoactivity and ataxia n/a RfD 1 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day
649 tert-Butyl Alcohol (tBA) 75-65-0 Inhalation Noncancer Increased severity of nephropathy n/a RfC 5 mg/m3
650 tert-Butyl Alcohol (tBA) 75-65-0 Oral Cancer Renal adenomas and carcinomas, thyroid adenomas Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential (2005 guidelines)
Oral Slope Factor 5 x 10 -4 mg/kg-day
651 tert-Butyl Alcohol (tBA) 75-65-0 Oral Noncancer Increased severity of nephropathy n/a RfD 4 x 10 -1 mg/kg-day

  CHEMICAL NAME CASRN PRINCIPAL CRITICAL EFFECT SYSTEM PRINCIPAL CRITICAL DESCRIPTION PRINCIPAL STUDY STUDY CITATION EXPERIMENTAL DOSE TYPE POD VALUE RFD VALUE UNCERTAINTY FACTOR MODIFYING FACTOR STUDY CONFIDENCE DATA CONFIDENCE OVERALL CONFIDENCE DOSE TYPE DURATION
1 Acenaphthene 83-32-9 Hepatic Hepatotoxicity Mouse oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 175.0 mg/kg-day 0.06 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
2 Acephate 30560-19-1 Nervous Inhibition of brain ChE 90-day rat feeding study (LEL for male subjects) Chevron Chemical Co., 1987a Lowest Effect Level 0.12 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 30 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
3 Acetochlor 34256-82-1 Hematologic, Hepatic, Nervous, Reproductive, Urinary Salivation, increased ALT and ornithine carbamyl transferase; significant increases in triglyceride and decreased blood glucose levels; histopathological changes in kidneys and testes of males 1-year dog feeding study ICI, Inc., 1988a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
4 Acetone 67-64-1 Urinary Nephropathy Subchronic drinking water study in rats Dietz, et., al, 1991 NTP, 1991 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 900.0 mg/kg-day 0.9 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
5 Acetophenone 98-86-2 Other General Toxicity Rat oral subchronic study Hagen et al., 1967 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 423.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
6 Acifluorfen, sodium 62476-59-9 Developmental, Other, Urinary Mortality and kidney lesions 2-generation reproduction rat study Rhone-Poulenc, Inc., 1986 No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
7 Acrolein 107-02-8 Other Decreased survival Chronic gavage rat study Parent et. al., 1992a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
8 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Nervous Degenerative nerve changes Chronic rat study Johnson et al. 1986 Human Equivalent Dose 0.053 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 30 1 Medium/High Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
9 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Developmental Reduced pup weight Rat reproductive study BASF, 1993 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 53.0 mg/kg-day 0.5 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
10 Alachlor 15972-60-8 Hematologic, Other Hemosiderosis, hemolytic anemia 1-year dog feeding study Monsanto Co., 1984a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
11 Alar 1596-84-5 Other No adverse effects 3-generation reproduction rat study, 3-generation reproduction rat study Uniroyal Chemical, 1966 No Observed Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.15 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Medium Low Threshold Chronic
12 Aldicarb 116-06-3 Nervous Sweating as clinical sign of AChe inhibition Acute human oral exposure study Rhone-Poulenc, 1992 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.01 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 10 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
13 Aldicarb sulfone 1646-88-4 Nervous Brain ChE inhibition in females 1-year dog feeding study Union Carbide Agricultural Products Co., 1987 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.11 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
14 Aldrin 309-00-2 Hepatic Liver toxicity Rat chronic feeding study Fitzhugh et al., 1964 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.025 mg/kg-day 3e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
15 Ally 74223-64-6 Other Decreased body weight 2-year rat feeding/oncogenicity study duPont, 1985a No Observed Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.25 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
16 Allyl alcohol 107-18-6 Hepatic, Urinary Impaired renal function and increased liver and kidney weights Subchronic oral rat study (drinking water) Carpanini et al., 1978 No Observed Effect Level 4.8 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
17 Aluminum phosphide 20859-73-8 Other Body weight and clinical parameters Rat chronic oral study Hackenburg, 1972 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.043 mg/kg-day 0.0004 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
18 Amdro 67485-29-4 Hepatic, Other Increased organ weights 26-week dog feeding study American Cyanamid, 1980 No Observed Effect Level 0.33 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
19 Ametryn 834-12-8 Hepatic Liver toxicity Rat subchronic oral gavage bioassay Ciba-Geigy, 1961a No Observed Effect Level 8.6 mg/kg-day 0.009 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
20 Amitraz 33089-61-1 Hematologic Increased mean blood sugar concentration; slight hypothermia 2-year dog oral feeding study Upjohn Co., 1972a No Observed Effect Level 0.25 mg/kg-day 0.0025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
21 Ammonium sulfamate 7773-06-0 Other Decrease in body weight 90-day rat feeding study Gupta et al., 1979 No Observed Effect Level 214.3 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
22 Anthracene 120-12-7 Other No observed effects Subchronic toxicity study in mice U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observed Effect Level 1000.0 mg/kg-day 0.3 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
23 Antimony 7440-36-0 Hematologic, Other Longevity, blood glucose, and cholesterol Rat chronic oral bioassay Schroeder et al., 1970 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.35 mg/kg-day 0.0004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
24 Apollo 74115-24-5 Endocrine, Hepatic Liver effects; organ weight changes 1-year feeding dog study BFC Chemicals, Inc., 1984 No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
25 Aroclor 1016 12674-11-2 Developmental Reduced birth weights Monkey reproductive bioassay Barsotti and van Miller, 1984; Levin et al., 1988; Schantz et al., 1989, 1991 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.007 mg/kg-day 7e-05 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
26 Aroclor 1254 11097-69-1 Dermal, Immune, Ocular Ocular exudate, inflamed and prominent Meibomian glands, distorted growth of finger and toe nails; decreased antibody (IgG and IgM) response to sheep erythrocytes Monkey clinical and immunologic studies Arnold et al., 1994a,b; Tryphonas et al., 1989, 1991a,b Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.005 mg/kg-day 2e-05 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
27 Arsenic, Inorganic 7440-38-2 Cardiovascular, Dermal Hyperpigmentation, keratosis and possible vascular complications Human chronic oral exposure Tseng, 1977; Tseng et al., 1968 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.0008 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 3 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
28 Assure 76578-14-8 Hepatic Liver cell enlargement 2-year rat feeding study (NOEL for male subjects) duPont, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 0.9 mg/kg-day 0.009 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
29 Asulam 3337-71-1 Hepatic, Reproductive Lower ovarian weight, lower liver/body weight 2-generation reproduction rat study Rhone-Poulenc, 1981a Lowest Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
30 Atrazine 1912-24-9 Other Decreased body weight gain 2-year rat feeding study Ciba-Geigy Corp., 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.035 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
31 Avermectin B1 65195-55-3 Developmental Increased retinal folds in weanlings, decreased viability and lactation indices, decreased pup body weight, increase of dead pups at birth 2-generation rat reproduction study Merck and Co., 1984 No Observed Effect Level 0.12 mg/kg-day 0.0004 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
32 Barium and Compounds 7440-39-3 Urinary Nephropathy 2-year drinking water study in mice NTP (1994) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 63.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
33 Baygon 114-26-1 Nervous Mild cholinergic symptoms and RBD ChE inhibition Single-dose human study Vandekar et al., 1971 Lowest Effect Level 0.36 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
34 Bayleton 43121-43-3 Hematologic, Other Decreased body weight gain, erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level 2-year rat dietary study Mobay Chemical, 1978 No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
35 Baythroid 68359-37-5 Other, Urinary Decreased body weights in males, inflammatory foci in kidneys of females 2-year rat study, dietary Mobay Chemical, 1983a No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
36 Benefin 1861-40-1 Hematologic Depressed erythrocyte counts Dog chronic oral bioassay Eli Lilly and Co., 1972 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.3 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
37 Benomyl 17804-35-2 Developmental Decreased pup weanling weights 3-generation reproduction rat study du Pont, 1968a No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
38 Bentazon (Basagran) 25057-89-0 Hematologic Blood loss into the gastrointestinal tract; coagulation defect in male and female dogs 1 year dog feeding study Allen et al., 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.2 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
39 Benzaldehyde 100-52-7 Gastrointestinal, Urinary Forestomach lesions, kidney toxicity Rat oral toxicity study (subchronic) Kluwe et al., 1983 No Observed Effect Level 143.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
40 Benzene 71-43-2 Immune Decreased lymphocyte count Human occupational inhalation study Rothman et. al., 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.2 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
41 Benzidine 92-87-5 Hepatic, Nervous Brain cell vacuolization; liver cell alterations in females Mouse chronic oral bioassay Littlefield et al., 1983 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.7 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
42 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Immune Decreased thymus weight and serum IgM Gavage subchronic (35 d) study in rats De Jong et al. (1999) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.9 mg/kg-day 0.002 per mg/kg-day 1000 1 None None Low Benchmark Chronic
43 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Reproductive Decreased ovarian follicles and ovary weight Gavage subchronic (60 d) reproductive toxicity study in rats Xu et al. (2010) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.37 per mg/kg-day 0.0004 per mg/kg-day 1000 1 None None Medium None Chronic
44 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Developmental Neurobehavioral changes Gavage neurodevelopmental study in rats (postnatal days [PNDs] 5−11) Chen et al. (2012) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.092 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Benchmark Chronic
45 Benzoic acid 65-85-0 Other No adverse effects observed Human daily per capita intakes FDA, 1973; Selected Committee on Review of the GRAS List No Observable Adverse Effect Level 4.4 mg/kg-day 4.0 mg/kg-day 1 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
46 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Gastrointestinal Small intestinal lesions Dog dietary study Morgareidge et al., 1976 Benchmark Dose 0.46 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
47 Bidrin 141-66-2 Reproductive Decreased pup survival 3-generation rat reproduction study Shell Chemical, 1965a No Observed Effect Level 0.1 mg/kg-day 0.0001 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
48 Biphenthrin 82657-04-3 Nervous Tremors 1-year dog feeding study FMC Corporation, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 1.5 mg/kg-day 0.015 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
49 Biphenyl 92-52-4 Urinary Renal papillary mineralization in male F344 rats 2-year dietary study Umeda et al. (2002) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 13.9 mg/kg-day 0.5 mg/kg-day 30 10 High Medium/High Medium/High None Chronic
50 Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether 108-60-1 Hematologic Decrease in hemoglobin and possible erythrocyte destruction 104-week mouse study oral exposure (diet) Mitsumori et al., 1979 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 35.8 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
51 Bisphenol A 80-05-7 Other Reduced mean body weight Rat chronic oral bioassay NTP, 1982 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
52 Boron and Compounds 7440-42-8 Developmental Decreased fetal weight (developmental) Rat dietary gestational exposure to boric acid Price et al., 1996a; Heindel et al., 1992 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 10.3 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 66 1 High High High Benchmark Chronic
53 Bromate 15541-45-4 Urinary Renal effects: urothelial hyperplasia Rat feeding study DeAngelo et al., 1998 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.1 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
54 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Hepatic Hepatocellular cytomegaly in male B6C3F1 mice 90-day oral gavage administration NTP (1985b) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 24.1 mg/kg-day 0.008 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium None Chronic
55 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Hepatic Hepatocellular cytomegaly in male B6C3F1 mice 90-day oral gavage administration NTP (1985b) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 24.1 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium None Subchronic
56 Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 Urinary Renal cytomegaly Chronic mouse gavage bioassay NTP, 1986 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 17.9 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
57 Bromoform 75-25-2 Hepatic Hepatic lesions Rat, subchronic oral gavage bioassay NTP, 1989 No Observed Effect Level 17.9 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
58 Bromomethane 74-83-9 Gastrointestinal Epithelial hyperplasia of the forestomach Rat subchronic gavage study Danse et al., 1984 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.4 mg/kg-day 0.0014 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
59 Bromoxynil 1689-84-5 Other No adverse effects 2-year rat feeding/ oncogenic study Union Carbide, 1982 No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
60 Bromoxynil octanoate 1689-99-2 Other No effects 2-year rat feeding study Union Carbide, 1982 No Observed Effect Level 7.3 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
61 Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) 85-68-7 Hepatic Significantly increased liver-to-body weight and liver-to-brain weight ratios 6-month rat study oral exposure (diet) NTP, 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 159.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
62 Butylate 2008-41-5 Hepatic Increased relative liver weight in male dogs 12-month dog feeding study Stauffer Chemical Co., 1987a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
63 Butylphthalyl butylglycolate (BPBG) 85-70-1 Other No adverse effect Rat, chronic oral bioassay B.F. Goodrich Co., 1950 No Observed Effect Level 1000.0 mg/kg-day 1.0 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
64 Cadmium 7440-43-9 Urinary Significant proteinuria Human studies involving chronic exposures U.S. EPA, 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.005 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 10 1 Not Available High High Threshold Chronic
65 Cadmium 7440-43-9 Urinary Significant proteinuria Human studies involving chronic exposures U.S. EPA, 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.01 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 10 1 None None High None Chronic
66 Calcium cyanide 592-01-8 Reproductive Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for cyanide, free is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. None None None None None 0.001 mg/kg-day None None None None None None Chronic
67 Caprolactam 105-60-2 Developmental Reduced offspring body weight Rat oral three generation reproduction study Serotta et al., 1984 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.5 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
68 Captafol 2425-06-1 Urinary Kidney and bladder toxicity One-year dog feeding study Ortho-Chevron, 1985a Lowest Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
69 Captan 133-06-2 Other Decreased mean body weights One-generation and three-generation rat reproduction studies Stauffer Chemical Co., 1982a Chevron Chemical Co., 1982 No Observed Effect Level 12.5 mg/kg-day 0.13 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
70 Carbaryl 63-25-2 Hepatic, Urinary Kidney and liver toxicity Rat chronic feeding study Carpenter et al., 1961 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 9.6 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
71 Carbofuran 1563-66-2 Nervous, Reproductive RBC and plasma cholinesterase inhibition, and testicular and uterine effects One-year dog feeding study FMC Corp., 1983 No Observed Effect Level 0.5 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
72 Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 Developmental Fetal toxicity/ malformations Rabbit inhalation teratogenic study Hardin et al., 1981 No Observed Effect Level 11.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
73 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Hepatic Elevated serum SDH activity Subchronic oral rat study Bruckner et al., 1986 Benchmark Dose 3.9 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
74 Carbosulfan 55285-14-8 Other Decreased body weight 2-year rat feeding study FMC, 1982a No Observed Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
75 Carboxin 5234-68-4 Other Reduced weight gain, organ weight changes, increased mortality 2-year rat feeding study Uniroyal Chemical, 1969a No Observed Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
76 Chloral hydrate 302-17-0 Gastrointestinal, Nervous CNS depression and GI irritation in humans Subchronic human pharmacological information Goodman and Gilman, 1985 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 10.7 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
77 Chloramben 133-90-4 Hepatic Hepatocyte degeneration 18-month feeding study in CD-1 mice Union Carbide, 1978 Lowest Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.015 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
78 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Hepatic Hepatic necrosis Mouse 104-week oral study Khasawinah and Grutsch, 1989a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.15 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
79 Chlordecone (Kepone) 143-50-0 Urinary Renal lesions (glomerulosclerosis) in female Wistar rats 2-year feeding study Larson et al., 1979 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.08 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Benchmark Chronic
80 Chlorimuron-ethyl 90982-32-4 Hematologic Increase in WBC, decreased in RBC in females, increase in alkaline phosphatase in males 1-year dog study oral exposure (diet) duPont, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 6.25 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
81 Chlorine 7782-50-5 None No observed adverse effects Rat chronic drinking water study NTP, 1992 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 14.4 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
82 Chlorine cyanide 506-77-4 Endocrine, Nervous, Other Weight loss, thyroid effects, and myelin degeneration Rat chronic oral study Howard and Hanzal, 1955 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 25.3 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 5 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
83 Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 Developmental, Nervous Neurodevelopmental effects Two-generation rat drinking water study CMA, 1996 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
84 Chlorite (sodium salt) 7758-19-2 Developmental, Nervous Neurodevelopmental effects Two-generation rat drinking water study CMA, 1996 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
85 p-Chloroaniline 106-47-8 Immune Nonneoplastic lesions of splenic capsule Rat, chronic oral bioassay NCI, 1979 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 12.5 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
86 Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 Hepatic Histopathologic changes in liver 13-week dog study, oral exposure (capsule) Monsanto Co., 1967a; Knapp et al., 1971 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 19.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
87 Chlorobenzilate 510-15-6 Nervous, Other Decreased stool quantity, food consumption and body weight gains hyperirritability (maternal effects) Rabbit teratology study Ciba-Geigy Corp., 1984a No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
88 Chloroform 67-66-3 Hepatic Moderate/marked fatty cyst formation in the liver and elevated SGPT Dog, chronic oral bioassay Heywood et al., 1979 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
89 beta-Chloronaphthalene 91-58-7 Hepatic, Other, Respiratory Dyspnea, abnormal appearance, liver enlargement Mouse subchronic oral gavage study U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 250.0 mg/kg-day 0.08 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
90 2-Chlorophenol 95-57-8 Reproductive Reproductive effects Rat subchronic drinking water study Exon and Koller, 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
91 Chlorothalonil 1897-45-6 Urinary Renal tubular epithelial vacuolation 2-year dog feeding study Diamond Shamrock Chemical, 1970a No Observed Effect Level 1.5 mg/kg-day 0.015 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
92 o-Chlorotoluene 95-49-8 Other Decrease in body weight gain 15-week rat study oral exposure (gavage) Gibson et al., 1974a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 20.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
93 Chlorpropham 101-21-3 Hematologic, Hepatic, Immune, Urinary Kidney, spleen, liver, and bone marrow toxicity 2-generation rat reproduction study PPG Industries, 1983a No Observed Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
94 Chlorsulfuron 64902-72-3 Other Decreased body weight 2-year rat study oral exposure (diet) du Pont, 1980a No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High None Chronic
95 Chromium(III), insoluble salts 16065-83-1 Other No effects observed Rat chronic feeding study Ivankovic and Preussman, 1975 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1468.0 mg/kg-day 1.5 mg/kg-day 100 10 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
96 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Other None reported Rat, 1-year drinking water study MacKenzie et al., 1958 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 300 3 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
97 Copper cyanide 544-92-3 Hepatic, Other, Urinary Decreased body and organ weights, histopathologic alterations in liver and kidney Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
98 Cumene 98-82-8 Urinary Increased average kidney weight in female rats Rat oral gavage study Wolf et al., 1956 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 110.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Medium Low Threshold Chronic
99 Cyanide, free 57-12-5 Reproductive Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for cyanide, free is presented in section 1.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. Decreased cauda epididymis weight in rats in the subchronic oral study conducted by NTP (1993). A total UF of 3,000 was applied to the POD: 10 for the extrapolation from animals to humans (UFA), 10 for the extrapolation from a subchronic to chronic exposure duration (UFS) 10 for human intraspecies variability (UFH) and 3 to account for database deficiencies (UFD). None None None None 0.00063 mg/kg-day 3000 None None None Low/Medium None Chronic
100 Cyanogen 460-19-5 Other Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for cyanogen is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. None None None None None 0.001 mg/kg-day None None None None None None Chronic
101 Cyanogen bromide 506-68-3 Endocrine, Nervous, Other Weight loss, thyroid effects and myelin degeneration Rat chronic oral study Howard and Hanzal, 1955 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 44.0 mg/kg-day 0.09 mg/kg-day 100 5 Medium Medium Low Threshold Chronic
102 Cyclohexanone 108-94-1 Other Body weight depression Chronic rat oral study Lijinsky and Kovatch, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 462.0 mg/kg-day 5.0 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
103 Cyclohexylamine 108-91-8 Reproductive Testicular damage Rat chronic oral study Gaunt et al., 1976 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 18.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
104 Cyhalothrin/Karate 68085-85-8 Developmental, Other Reduced body weight gain preceding pregnancy reduced body weight gain in offspring during weaning period 3-generation reproduction study in rats Coopers Animal Health and Imperial Chemical Industries, 1984 No Observed Effect Level 0.5 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
105 Cypermethrin 52315-07-8 Gastrointestinal G.I. tract disturbances 1-year dog feeding study ICI Americas, Inc., 1982a No Observed Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
106 Cyromazine 66215-27-8 Hematologic Hematologic effects 6-month dog study oral exposure (diet) Ciba-Geigy, 1980 No Observed Effect Level 0.75 mg/kg-day 0.0075 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
107 Dacthal 1861-32-1 Endocrine, Hepatic, Ocular, Respiratory, Urinary Effects on the lungs, liver, kidney, thyroid and thyroid hormones in males and females and eyes of females 2-year rat feeding study ISK Biotech Corp., 1993 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
108 Dalapon, sodium salt 75-99-0 Urinary Increased kidney body weight ratio 2-year rat study oral exposure (diet) Paynter et al., 1960 No Observed Effect Level 8.45 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
109 Danitol 39515-41-8 Nervous Tremors 1-year dog feeding study Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd., 1984 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
110 2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5',6,6'-Decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) 1163-19-5 Nervous Neurobehavioral effects Single dose gavage study in mice Viberg et al., 2003 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.22 mg/kg 0.007 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Medium Low Threshold Chronic
111 Demeton 8065-48-3 Nervous ChE inhibition, optic nerve degeneration 2-year feeding in rats (disulfoton) Mobay Chemical, 1985 Lowest Effect Level 0.04 mg/kg-day 4e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Low Low Threshold Chronic
112 Di (2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 117-81-7 Hepatic Increased relative liver weight Guinea pig subchronic-to-chronic oral bioassay Carpenter et al., 1953 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 19.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
113 Di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate 103-23-1 Developmental, Hepatic, Musculoskeletal, Other, Urinary Changes in body weight and liver weight increased liver weight of male and female parents reduced ossification and slightly dilated ureters in fetuses reduced offspring weight gain, total litter weight, and litter size Rat teratogenicity feeding study one-generation rat reproductive study ICI, 1988a,b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 170.0 mg/kg-day 0.6 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
114 1,4-Dibromobenzene 106-37-6 Hepatic Liver/body weight ratio and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction Rat subchronic oral study Carlson and Tardiff, 1977 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
115 Dibromochloromethane 124-48-1 Hepatic Hepatic lesions Rat, subchronic gavage bioassay NTP, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 21.4 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
116 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Endocrine, Hepatic, Reproductive Testicular atrophy, liver peliosis, and adrenal cortical degeneration Rat chronic oral gavage study NCI, 1978 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 27.0 mg/kg-day 0.009 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
117 Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) 84-74-2 Other Increased mortality Rat subchronic to chronic, oral bioassay Smith, 1953 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 125.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
118 Dicamba 1918-00-9 Developmental, Other Maternal (reduced weight gain) and fetal toxicity Rabbit developmental study Velsicol Chemical, 1978 No Observed Effect Level 3.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
119 Dichloroacetic acid 79-43-6 Hepatic, Nervous, Reproductive Lesions observed in the testes, cerebrum, cerebellum, and liver. Dog, Subchronic Oral Cicmanec et. al., 1991 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 12.5 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 3000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold None
120 1,2-Dichlorobenzene 95-50-1 Other No adverse effects observed 2-year rat study, oral exposure (gavage) NTP, 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 85.7 mg/kg-day 0.09 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
121 Dichlorodifluoromethane 75-71-8 Other Reduced body weight Rat chronic oral study Sherman, 1974 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
122 p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 50-29-3 Hepatic Liver lesions 27-week rat feeding study Laug et al., 1950 No Observed Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
123 cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-59-2 Urinary Increased relative kidney weight in male rats Subchronic oral rat study McCauley et al. (1995, 1990) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 5.1 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low/Medium Low Threshold Chronic
124 trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene 156-60-5 Immune Decrease in number of antibody forming cells (AFCs) against sheep red blood cells (sRBCs) in male mice Subchronic oral mouse study Shopp et al. (1985) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 65.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low/Medium Low Threshold Chronic
125 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) 75-35-4 Hepatic Liver toxicity (fatty change) Rat chronic drinking water study Quast et al., 1983 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 4.6 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
126 Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Hepatic Hepatic effects (hepatic vacuolation, liver foci) 2-Year rat drinking water bioassay Serota et al., 1986a Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.19 mg/kg-day 0.006 mg/kg-day 30 1 High Medium/High High None Chronic
127 2,4-Dichlorophenol 120-83-2 Immune Decreased delayed hypersensitivity response Rat, subchronic to chronic Exon and Koller, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 0.3 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
128 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB) 94-82-6 Other Internal hemorrhage, mortality Dog subchronic oral bioassay Rhodia, Inc., 1969a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 8.0 mg/kg-day 0.008 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
129 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) 94-75-7 Hematologic, Hepatic, Urinary Hematologic, hepatic and renal toxicity 90-day rat oral bioassay and 1-year interim report from a 2-year rat oral bioassay Dow Chemical Co., 1983 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
130 2,3-Dichloropropanol 616-23-9 Cardiovascular, Hepatic, Urinary Myocardial degeneration, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
131 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Gastrointestinal Chronic irritation Rat chronic feeding study Stott et al., 1995 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.4 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
132 Dichlorvos 62-73-7 Nervous Plasma and RBC ChE inhibition in males and females brain ChE inhibition in males 1-year dog feeding study AMVAC Chemical Corp., 1990 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
133 Dieldrin 60-57-1 Hepatic Liver lesions 2-year rat feeding study Walker et al., 1969 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.005 mg/kg-day 5e-05 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
134 Diethyl phthalate (DEP) 84-66-2 Other Decreased growth rate, food consumption and altered organ weights Rat, subchronic oral feeding study Brown et al., 1978 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 750.0 mg/kg-day 0.8 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
135 Difenzoquat 43222-48-6 Other Decreased body weight 2-year rat feeding study American Cyanamid Co., 1975 No Observed Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.08 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
136 Diflubenzuron 35367-38-5 Hematologic Methemoglobin and sulfhemoglobin formation One-year dog feeding study Duphar, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
137 Diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) 1445-75-6 Other No effects related to treatment 90-day dog feeding study U.S. DOD, 1980 No Observed Effect Level 75.0 mg/kg-day 0.08 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
138 Dimethipin 55290-64-7 Hepatic Increased absolute and relative liver weight 2-year rat feeding study Uniroyal Chemical Co., 1981a No Observed Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
139 Dimethoate 60-51-5 Nervous Brain ChE inhibition 2-year rat feeding study American Cyanamid Co., 1986a No Observed Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 0.0002 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
140 Dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) 120-61-6 Urinary Chronic kidney inflammation Rat chronic dietary study NCI, 1979 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 125.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
141 N-N-Dimethylaniline 121-69-7 Hematologic, Immune, Other Splenomegaly, increased splenic hemosiderosis and hematopoiesis Mouse subchronic gavage bioassay Abdo et al., 1984 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 22.32 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 10000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
142 2,4-Dimethylphenol 105-67-9 Hematologic, Nervous Clinical signs (lethargy, prostration, and ataxia) and hematological changes Mouse subchronic oral gavage U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
143 3,4-Dimethylphenol 95-65-8 Cardiovascular, Hepatic, Immune, Other, Urinary Changes in blood pressure and body weight histopathological changes in liver, kidney and spleen Rat oral 1-year study Veldre and Janes, 1979 No Observed Effect Level 1.4 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
144 2,6-Dimethylphenol 576-26-1 Hepatic, Immune, Other, Urinary Body weight changes and histopathological changes of internal organs (liver, spleen and kidneys) Rat subchronic toxicity study Veldre and Janes, 1979 No Observed Effect Level 0.6 mg/kg-day 0.0006 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
145 4,6-Dinitro-o-cyclohexyl phenol 131-89-5 Ocular Cataract formation Adult human subchronic oral study Horner, 1942 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
146 m-Dinitrobenzene 99-65-0 Immune Increased splenic weight Rat subchronic oral study Cody et al., 1981 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.4 mg/kg-day 0.0001 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
147 2,4-Dinitrophenol 51-28-5 Ocular Cataract formation Human chronic and subchronic exposures Horner, 1942 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
148 2,4-Dinitrotoluene 121-14-2 Hematologic, Hepatic, Nervous Neurotoxicity, Heinz bodies and biliary tract hyperplasia Dog feeding study, 2-year Ellis et al., 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.2 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
149 Dinoseb 88-85-7 Developmental Decreased fetal weight 3-generation rat reproduction study Dow Chemical Co., 1981a Lowest Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
150 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 Hepatic, Urinary Liver and kidney toxicity Chronic oral male rat study Kociba et al. 1974 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 9.6 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
151 Diphenamid 957-51-7 Hepatic Liver toxicity 2-year dog feeding study Upjohn Co., 1966a No Observed Effect Level 3.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
152 Diphenylamine 122-39-4 Hepatic, Other, Urinary Decreased body weight gain, and increased liver and kidney weights 2-year dog feeding study Thomas et al., 1967 No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
153 Diquat 2764-72-9 Ocular Minimal lens opacity and cataracts Chronic rat study, dietary Chevron Chemical, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 0.22 mg/kg-day 0.0022 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
154 Disulfoton 298-04-4 Nervous ChE inhibition, optic nerve degeneration 2-year rat study oral exposure (diet) Mobay Chemical, 1985 Lowest Effect Level 0.04 mg/kg-day 4e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
155 1,4-Dithiane 505-29-3 Nervous, Respiratory Nasal olfactory lesions 90-day gavage rat study Schieferstein et al., 1988 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 105.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 10000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
156 Diuron 330-54-1 Hematologic Abnormal pigments in blood 2-year dog feeding study du Pont, 1964a No Observed Effect Level 0.625 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
157 Dodine 2439-10-3 Endocrine Thyroid toxicity 1-year dog feeding study American Cyanamid, 1958 No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
158 Endosulfan 115-29-7 Cardiovascular, Other, Urinary Reduced body weight gain in males and females increased incidence of marked progressive glomerulonephrosis and blood vessel aneurysms in males 2-year rat feeding study (NOAEL for males) Hoechst Celanese Corp., 1989a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.6 mg/kg-day 0.006 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
159 Endothall 145-73-3 Gastrointestinal Increased absolute and relative weights of stomach and small intestine Two-year feeding study in dogs Pennwalt Agchem., 1965 No Observed Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
160 Endrin 72-20-8 Hepatic, Nervous Mild histological lesions in liver, occasional convulsions Dog chronic oral bioassay Velsicol Chemical Corporation, 1969 No Observed Effect Level 0.025 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
161 Ethephon 16672-87-0 Nervous Plasma ChE inhibition 16-day human study Union Carbide, 1977a Lowest Effect Level 0.5 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Medium Low Threshold Chronic
162 Ethion 563-12-2 Nervous Plasma cholinesterase inhibition Cholinesterase inhibition study in humans FMC Corp., 1970 No Observed Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
163 Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) 637-92-3 Urinary Increased absolute kidney weight in female rats 2-year drinking water study in male and female F344 rats Suzuki et al., 2012; JPEC, 2010a Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 28.8 mg/kg-day 1.0 mg/kg-day 30 1 High High High Benchmark Chronic
164 Ethyl acetate 141-78-6 Other Mortality and body weight loss Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observed Effect Level 900.0 mg/kg-day 0.9 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Low Low Threshold Chronic
165 S-Ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate (EPTC) 759-94-4 Cardiovascular Degenerative cardiomyopathy 2-generation reproduction rat study PPG Industries, 1986a No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
166 Ethyl ether 60-29-7 Other Depressed body weights Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 500.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
167 Ethyl p-nitrophenyl phenylphosphorothioate (EPN) 2104-64-5 Nervous Neurotoxicity 90-day hen delayed neurotoxicity bioassay Morabani, Nissan, duPont and Velsicol, 1982 No Observed Effect Level 0.01 mg/kg-day 1e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
168 Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 Hepatic, Urinary Liver and kidney toxicity Rat subchronic to chronic oral bioassay Wolf et al., 1956 No Observed Effect Level 97.1 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
169 Ethylene glycol 107-21-1 Urinary Kidney toxicity Chronic rat oral feeding study DePass et al., 1986a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 200.0 mg/kg-day 2.0 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
170 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol) 111-76-2 Hematologic Hemosiderin deposition in the liver Chronic (rat and mouse) inhalation study NTP (2000) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.4 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 10 1 High Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
171 Ethylene thiourea (ETU) 96-45-7 Endocrine Increased incidence of thyroid hyperplasia Rat 24-month feeding study Graham et al., 1975 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.25 mg/kg-day 8e-05 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
172 Ethylphthalyl ethylglycolate (EPEG) 84-72-0 Urinary Kidney damage and reduced lifespan Rat, chronic oral bioassay Hodge et al., 1953 No Observed Effect Level 250.0 mg/kg-day 3.0 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
173 Express 101200-48-0 Other, Urinary Elevated serum bilirubin and AST levels, increased urinary volume 1-year dog feeding study du Pont, 1986a No Observed Effect Level 0.79 mg/kg-day 0.008 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
174 Fenamiphos 22224-92-6 Nervous ChE inhibition 2-year dog feeding study Chemagro Corp., 1972a No Observed Effect Level 0.025 mg/kg-day 0.00025 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
175 Fluometuron 2164-17-2 Other No adverse effects 103-week rat feeding study NCI, 1980 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 12.5 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
176 Fluoranthene 206-44-0 Hepatic, Urinary Nephropathy, increased liver weights, hematological alterations, and clinical effects Mouse subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1988 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 125.0 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
177 Fluorene 86-73-7 Hematologic Decreased RBC, packed cell volume and hemoglobin Mouse subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 125.0 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
178 Fluorine (soluble fluoride) 7782-41-4 Gastrointestinal Objectionable dental fluorosis, a cosmetic effect Epidemiologic study in children Hodge, 1950, cited in Underwood, 1977 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.06 mg/kg-day 0.06 mg/kg-day 1 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
179 Fluridone 59756-60-4 Ocular, Other, Reproductive, Urinary Glomerulonephritis, atrophic testes, eye keratitis decreased body weight and organ weights 2-year rat feeding study Elanco Products, 1980a No Observed Effect Level 8.0 mg/kg-day 0.08 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
180 Flurprimidol 56425-91-3 Hepatic, Other Increased incidence of hepatocellular changes including fatty change and vacuolation (M) increased susceptibility to stress factors (F) 2-generation rat reproduction study Eli Lilly and Co., 1986a No Observed Effect Level 1.8 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
181 Flutolanil 66332-96-5 Hepatic, Other, Reproductive Decreased body weight and body weight gains in both doses increased liver weights at high dose 3-generation reproduction and teratology study in rats NOR-AM Chemical Co., 1982a Lowest Effect Level 63.7 mg/kg-day 0.06 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
182 Fluvalinate 69409-94-5 Dermal, Other Decreases in body weight gain increase in plantar ulcer (females) 2-year feeding/ oncogenicity study in rats Zoecon, 1984 No Observed Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
183 Folpet 133-07-3 Hepatic, Other Decreased body weight gain, altered serum chemistry parameters (decreased serum cholesterol, total protein, and serum albumin and globulin levels) Chronic oral toxicity study in dogs Chevron Chemical, 1986 No Observed Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
184 Fonofos 944-22-9 Hepatic, Nervous Cholinesterase inhibition, cholinergic symptoms, and increased liver weight 2-year dog feeding study Stauffer Chemical Co., 1969 No Observed Effect Level 0.2 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
185 Formaldehyde 50-00-0 Gastrointestinal, Other, Urinary Reduced weight gain, histopathology in rats Rat 2-year bioassay Til et al., 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
186 Fosetyl-al 39148-24-8 Reproductive Slight testicular degeneration 2-year dog feeding study Rhone-Poulenc, 1981a No Observed Effect Level 250.0 mg/kg-day 3.0 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
187 Furan 110-00-9 Hepatic Hepatic lesions Mouse subchronic oral study NTP, 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.4 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
188 Furfural 98-01-1 Hepatic Mild hepatocellular vacuolization Rat oral subchronic study NTP, 1981a Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 7.9 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
189 Glufosinate-ammonium 77182-82-2 Urinary Increased absolute and relative kidney weights in males 13-week rat feeding study Hoescht AG, 1982a No Observed Effect Level 0.4 mg/kg-day 0.0004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
190 Glycidaldehyde 765-34-4 Endocrine, Hematologic, Other, Urinary Weight gain retardation, enlarged adrenals, hydropic renal pelvis and hematopoietic effects Rat subchronic inhalation study Hine et al., 1961 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.09 mg/kg-day 0.0004 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
191 Glyphosate 1071-83-6 Developmental, Urinary Increased incidence of renal tubular dilation in F3b offspring 3-generation rat reproduction study Monsanto Co., 1981a No Observed Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
192 Haloxyfop-methyl 69806-40-2 Reproductive, Urinary Reduced relative kidney weights in F0, F1, and F2b adults; reduced fertility in the F1/F2b generation 3-generation rat reproduction study Dow Chemical U.S.A., 1985a No Observed Effect Level 0.005 mg/kg-day 5e-05 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
193 Harmony 79277-27-3 Other Reduced body weight gains in males, reduced serum sodium in males and females 2-year rat feeding study du Pont, 1986a No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
194 Heptachlor 76-44-8 Hepatic Liver weight increases in males 2-year rat feeding study Velsicol Chemical, 1955a No Observed Effect Level 0.15 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
195 Heptachlor epoxide 1024-57-3 Hepatic Increased liver-to-body weight ratio in both males and females 60-week dog feeding study Dow Chemical Co., 1958 Lowest Effect Level 0.0125 mg/kg-day 1.3e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Medium Low Threshold Chronic
196 Hexabromobenzene 87-82-1 Hepatic Induced serum carboxylesterase activity, increased relative liver weight, increased liver porphyrins Rat dietary subchronic study Mendoza et al., 1977 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
197 2,2',4,4',5,5'-Hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153) 68631-49-2 Nervous Neurobehavioral effects Single dose gavage study in mice Viberg et al. 2003 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.45 mg/kg 0.0002 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Benchmark Chronic
198 Hexachlorobenzene 118-74-1 Hepatic Liver effects Rat chronic feeding study Arnold et al., 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.08 mg/kg-day 0.0008 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High Medium Threshold Chronic
199 gamma-Hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) 58-89-9 Hepatic, Urinary Liver and kidney toxicity Rat, subchronic oral bioassay (NOAEL for females) Zoecon Corp., 1983 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.33 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
200 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) 77-47-4 Gastrointestinal Chronic irritation Rat subchronic gavage bioassay Abdo et al., 1984 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 6.0 mg/kg-day 0.006 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
201 Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 Urinary Atrophy and degeneration of renal tubules 16-week subchronic dietary exposure study, male F344 rats Gorzinski et al., 1985 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.728 mg/kg-day 0.0007 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
202 Hexachlorophene 70-30-4 Gastrointestinal, Nervous Swollen salivary glands, status spongiosis in brain and optic nerve 13-week dog feeding study Nationwide Chemical Corp., 1974 Lowest Effect Level 0.75 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
203 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Urinary Kidney medullary papillary necrosis in F344 rats 2-year rat feeding study Levine et al., 1983 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.9 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
204 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Nervous Convulsions in F344 rats 90-day oral gavage study in F344 rats Crouse et al., 2006 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.3 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium None Medium Benchmark Chronic
205 Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) 121-82-4 Reproductive Suppurative prostatitis in F344 rats 2-year rat feeding study Levine et al., 1983 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.23 mg/kg-day 0.0008 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Low Low Benchmark Chronic
206 2-Hexanone 591-78-6 Nervous Axonal swelling of the peripheral nerve 13-Month drinking water study in rats O'Donoghue et al., 1978 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low/Medium Medium Benchmark Chronic
207 Hexazinone 51235-04-2 Other Decreased body weight 2-year rat feeding study du Pont, 1977 No Observed Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.033 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
208 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts Various Reproductive Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats 13-Week drinking water study NTP, 1993 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.9 mg/kg-day 0.0006 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
209 Imazalil 35554-44-0 Other Decreased body weight gain 2-year dog feeding study Penwalt Corp., 1977 No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
210 Imazaquin 81335-37-7 Hematologic, Hepatic, Immune, Other Decreased body weight gain, skeletal myopathy, slight anemia, bone marrow hyperplasia, elevated serum SGOT, SGPT, CPK One-year dog feeding study American Cyanamid, 1984a No Observed Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.25 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
211 Iprodione 36734-19-7 Hematologic, Reproductive Increased RBC Heinz bodies; decreased prostate weight 1-year dog feeding study Rhone-Poulenc, 1984 No Observed Effect Level 4.2 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
212 Isobutyl alcohol 78-83-1 Nervous Hypoactivity and ataxia Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observed Effect Level 316.0 mg/kg-day 0.3 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
213 Isophorone 78-59-1 Urinary Kidney pathology 90-day dog feeding study Nor-Am Agricultural Products, Inc., 1972a No Observed Effect Level 150.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
214 Isopropalin 33820-53-0 Hematologic, Other Reduced hemoglobin concentration, lowered hematocrits, and altered organ weights 90-day rat feeding study Elanco Products, 1969a No Observed Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.015 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
215 Isopropyl methyl phosphonic acid (IMPA) 1832-54-8 Other No adverse effects observed Rat drinking water study 90-day Mecler, 1981 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 279.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
216 Isoxaben 82558-50-7 Cardiovascular, Hepatic, Urinary Increased BUN; decreased serum AP and AST; decreased food consumption efficiency; increased heart/body weight 2-year rat feeding study (NOEL for males) Elanco Products, 1985a No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
217 Lactofen 77501-63-4 Hepatic Increased absolute and relative liver weight; hepatocytomegaly in males 78-week oncogenic study in mice PPG Industries, 1985a Lowest Effect Level 1.5 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
218 Linuron 330-55-2 Hematologic Abnormal blood pigment 2-year dog feeding study du Pont, 1962 Lowest Effect Level 0.625 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
219 Londax 83055-99-6 Hepatic Liver effects 1-year dog feeding study (NOEL for females) du Pont, 1986a No Observed Effect Level 19.9 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
220 Malathion 121-75-5 Nervous RBC ChE depression Subchronic human feeding study Moeller and Rider, 1962 No Observed Effect Level 0.23 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 10 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
221 Maleic anhydride 108-31-6 Urinary Renal lesions Rat oral chronic study U.S. EPA, 1983 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 10.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
222 Maleic hydrazide 123-33-1 Urinary Renal dysfunction 2-year rat feeding study Uniroyal Chemical Co., 1981 Lowest Effect Level 500.0 mg/kg-day 0.5 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
223 Maneb 12427-38-2 Endocrine Increased thyroid weight 6-month monkey feeding study Rohm and Haas Co., 1977; Maneb Task Force, 1986 No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
224 Manganese 7439-96-5 Nervous CNS effects Human chronic ingestion data NRC, 1989; Freeland- Graves et al., 1987; WHO, 1973 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.14 mg/kg-day 0.14 mg/kg-day 1 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
225 Mepiquat chloride 24307-26-4 Hematologic, Nervous, Other Sedation and tonoclonic spasms decreased food intake and body weights hematologic effects 90-day dog feeding study BASF Wyandotte Chemical, 1977a No Observed Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
226 Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) 7487-94-7 Immune, Urinary Autoimmune effects (autoimmune glomerulonephritis) Rat subchronic feeding and subcutaneous studies U.S. EPA, 1987 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.317 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Not Available High High Threshold Chronic
227 Merphos 150-50-5 Nervous, Other Ataxia, delayed neurotoxicity and weight loss 90-day hen delayed neurotoxicity study Abou-Donia et al., 1980 No Observed Effect Level 0.1 mg/kg-day 3e-05 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
228 Merphos oxide 78-48-8 Nervous, Other Ataxia, delayed neurotoxicity and weight loss 90-day hen delayed neurotoxicity study Abou-Donia et al., 1979 No Observed Effect Level 0.1 mg/kg-day 3e-05 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
229 Metalaxyl 57837-19-1 Hepatic Increased serum alkaline phosphatase levels and increased liver-to-brain weight ratio 6-month dog feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1981a No Observed Effect Level 6.25 mg/kg-day 0.06 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
230 Methacrylonitrile 126-98-7 Hepatic Increased SGOT and SGPT levels Dog subchronic study Pozzani et al., 1968 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.34 mg/kg-day 0.0001 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
231 Methamidophos 10265-92-6 Nervous ChE inhibition One-year dog feeding study Mobay Chemical, 1984a Lowest Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 5e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
232 Methanol 67-56-1 Developmental Extra cervical ribs CD-1 mice, Inhalation developmental toxicity study exposure during gestation days GD7-GD17 Rogers et al. (1993b) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 43.1 mg/L 2.0 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium/High None Chronic
233 Methidathion 950-37-8 Hepatic Liver toxicity 2-year dog feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1967 No Observed Effect Level 0.1 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
234 Methomyl 16752-77-5 Immune, Urinary Kidney and spleen pathology 2-year feeding study dogs du Pont, 1968a No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
235 Methoxychlor 72-43-5 Developmental Excessive loss of litters Rabbit teratology study Kincaid Enterprises, 1986 No Observed Effect Level 5.01 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
236 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 78-93-3 Developmental Decreased pup body weight Multigeneration reproductive developmental rat drinking water study Cox et al., 1975 Lowest Effect Dose 639.0 mg/kg-day 0.6 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low/Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
237 Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 Other None Rat drinking water study Borzelleca et al., 1964 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 136.0 mg/kg-day 1.4 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
238 Methyl parathion 298-00-0 Hematologic, Nervous RBC, ChE inhibition; reduced hemoglobin, hematocrit and RBCs 2-year rat feeding study Monsanto Co., 1984 No Observed Effect Level 0.025 mg/kg-day 0.00025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
239 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB) 94-81-5 Hepatic, Other, Reproductive, Urinary Male reproductive toxicity and other effects (including decreased body weight gain), increased liver and kidney weights 13-week dog feeding study Rhodia, Inc., 1970a No Observed Effect Level 12.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
240 2-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP) 93-65-2 Urinary Increased absolute and relative kidney weights 90-day rat feeding study BASF Aktiegesellschaft, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 3.0 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
241 2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) 94-74-6 Hepatic, Urinary Kidney and liver toxicity 1-year dog feeding study Industry Task Force on MCPA, 1986a No Observed Effect Level 0.15 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
242 Methylmercury (MeHg) 22967-92-6 Developmental, Nervous Developmental neuropsychological impairment Human epidemiological studies Grandjean et al., 1997 Budtz-Jorgensen et al., 1999a Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.00086 mg/kg-day 0.0001 mg/kg-day 10 1 High High High None Chronic
243 Methylmercury (MeHg) 22967-92-6 Developmental, Nervous Developmental neuropsychological impairment Human epidemiological studies Grandjean et al., 1997 Budtz-Jorgensen et al., 1999a Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.0015 mg/kg-day 0.0001 mg/kg-day 10 1 High High High None Chronic
244 2-Methylnaphthalene 91-57-6 Respiratory Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis B6C3F1 male and female mice 81-week dietary study Murata et al. (1997) Benchmark Dose 4.7 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
245 2-Methylphenol 95-48-7 Nervous, Other Decreased body weights and neurotoxicity 90-day oral subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats U.S. EPA, 1986, 1987 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
246 3-Methylphenol 108-39-4 Nervous Decreased body weights and neurotoxicity 90-day oral subchronic neurotoxicity study in rats U.S. EPA, 1986, 1987 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
247 Metolachlor 51218-45-2 Other, Reproductive Decreased body weight gain, decreased pup weight and parental food consumption 2-year rat feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1983 No Observed Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.15 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
248 Metribuzin 21087-64-9 Hepatic, Other, Urinary Liver and kidney effects, decreased body weight, mortality 2-year feeding study in dogs Mobay Chemical, 1974a No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
249 Mirex 2385-85-5 Endocrine, Hepatic Liver cytomegaly, fatty metamorphosis, angiectasis; thyroid cystic follicles Rat chronic dietary feeding study NTP, 1990 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.07 mg/kg-day 0.0002 mg/kg-day 300 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
250 Molinate 2212-67-1 Reproductive Reproductive toxicity Rat fertility study (gavage) Stauffer Chemical Co., 1981 No Observed Effect Level 0.2 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
251 Molybdenum 7439-98-7 Urinary Increased uric acid levels Human 6-year to lifetime dietary exposure study Koval'skiy et al., 1961 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.14 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 30 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
252 Monochloramine 10599-90-3 Other No observed effects Rat chronic oral study NTP, 1992 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 9.5 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
253 Naled 300-76-5 Nervous Brain ChE inhibition 2-year rat study, dietary Chevron Chemical Co., 1984a No Observed Effect Level 0.2 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
254 Naphthalene 91-20-3 Other Decreased mean terminal body weight in males Subchronic oral rat study BCL, 1980a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 71.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 3000 1 High Low Low Threshold Chronic
255 Napropamide 15299-99-7 Reproductive Decreased body weight gain in parental animals and pups 3-generation rat reproduction study Stauffer Chemical Co., 1978a No Observed Effect Level 30.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
256 Nickel, soluble salts Various Other Decreased body and organ weights Rat chronic oral study Ambrose et al., 1976 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
257 Nitrate 14797-55-8 Hematologic Early clinical signs of methemoglobinemia in excess of 10% (0-3 months old infants formula) Human epidemiological surveys Bosch et al., 1950; Walton, 1951 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.6 mg/kg-day 1.6 mg/kg-day 1 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
258 Nitrite 14797-65-0 Hematologic Methemoglobinemia Infant chronic exposure to drinking water Walton, 1951 No Observed Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1 10 High High High Threshold Chronic
259 Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 Hematologic Increased methemoglobin levels Subchronic rat study NTP, 1983 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.8 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
260 Nitroguanidine 556-88-7 Developmental, Other Reduced weight gain in female rats, maternal/ fetal toxicity in rats, and equivocal evidence of developmental toxicity in rabbits 90-day rat study oral exposure (diet) Morgan et al., 1988 Coppes et al., 1988a, b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 316.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
261 Norflurazon 27314-13-2 Endocrine, Hepatic Liver and thyroid effects 6-month dog feeding study Sandoz-Wander, 1973 No Observed Effect Level 3.75 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
262 NuStar 85509-19-9 Hepatic Liver cell enlargement 1-year dog feeding study du Pont, 1985 No Observed Effect Level 0.2 mg/kg-day 0.0007 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
263 Octabromodiphenyl ether 32536-52-0 Hepatic Induction of hepatic enzymes; liver histopathology Subchronic, rat, oral (gavage) Carlson, 1980 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.51 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
264 Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) 2691-41-0 Hepatic Hepatic lesions 13-week rat feeding study U.S. DOD, 1985a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
265 Oryzalin 19044-88-3 Endocrine, Hepatic, Urinary Increases in serum cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and relative liver and kidney weights, and decreases in alanine transaminase and adrenal weights 1-year dog feeding study Eli Lilly Co., 1986 No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
266 Oxadiazon 19666-30-9 Hematologic, Hepatic Increased levels of serum proteins and increased liver weights 2-year rat feeding study Rhone-Poulenc, 1981 No Observed Effect Level 0.5 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
267 Oxamyl 23135-22-0 Other Decreased body weight gain and food consumption 2-year rat feeding/ oncogenic study du Pont, 1972a No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
268 Oxyfluorfen 42874-03-3 Hepatic Increased absolute liver weight and nonneoplastic lesions 20-month mouse feeding study Rohm & Haas, 1977a No Observed Effect Level 0.3 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
269 Paclobutrazol 76738-62-0 Hepatic Elevated liver weights, serum cholesterol, hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity, and alanine transaminase levels 90-day rat feeding study ICI Americas, Inc., 1983a No Observed Effect Level 12.5 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
270 Paraquat 1910-42-5 Respiratory Chronic pneumonitis 1-year dog feeding study Chevron Chemical Company, 1983a No Observed Effect Level 0.45 mg/kg-day 0.0045 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
271 Pendimethalin 40487-42-1 Hepatic Increase in serum alkaline phosphatase and liver weight, and hepatic lesions 2-year dog feeding study American Cyanamid, 1979 No Observed Effect Level 12.5 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
272 Pentabromodiphenyl ether 32534-81-9 Hepatic Induction of hepatic enzymes Subchronic, rat, oral (gavage) Carlson, 1980 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.77 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
273 2,2',4,4',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) 60348-60-9 Nervous Neurobehavioral effects Single dose gavage study in mice Viberg et al. (2004a) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.29 mg/kg 0.0001 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Benchmark Chronic
274 Pentachlorobenzene 608-93-5 Hepatic, Urinary Liver and kidney toxicity Subchronic rat oral bioassay (including weanlings) Linder et al., 1980 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 8.3 mg/kg-day 0.0008 mg/kg-day 10000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
275 Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) 82-68-8 Hepatic Liver toxicity 2-year dog feeding study Olin Mathieson Corp., 1968a No Observed Effect Level 0.75 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
276 Pentachlorophenol 87-86-5 Hepatic Hepatotoxicity 1-Year beagle dog study Mecler, 1996 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.5 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium High Medium Threshold Chronic
277 Perchlorate (ClO4) and Perchlorate Salts 7790-98-9 Endocrine Radioactive iodide uptake inhibition (RAIU) in the thyroid Adult human volunteers Greer et al. (2002) No Observed Effect Level 0.007 mg/kg-day 0.0007 mg/kg-day 10 1 Medium/High Medium High Threshold Chronic
278 Permethrin 52645-53-1 Hepatic Increased liver weights 2-year rat feeding study FMC Corp., 1977 No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
279 Phenmedipham 13684-63-4 Other No adverse effects 2-year rat feeding/ carcinogenicity study Nor-Am Agricultural Products, Inc., 1980a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.25 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
280 Phenol 108-95-2 Other Decreased maternal weight gain Rat developmental study Argus Research Laboratories, 1997 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 93.0 mg/kg-day 0.3 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
281 m-Phenylenediamine 108-45-2 Hepatic Increased relative and absolute liver weights and degenerative liver lesions Rat oral subchronic study Hofer et al., 1982 No Observed Effect Level 6.0 mg/kg-day 0.006 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
282 Phenylmercuric acetate 62-38-4 Urinary Renal damage Rat oral chronic study Fitzhugh et al., 1950 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.0084 mg/kg-day 8e-05 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
283 Phosmet 732-11-6 Hepatic, Nervous, Other Reduced body weight (males), liver cell vacuolation, cholinesterase inhibition 2-year rat feeding study Stauffer Chemical, 1967 No Observed Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
284 Phosphine 7803-51-2 Other Body weight and clinical parameters Rat chronic oral study Hackenburg, 1972 No Observed Effect Level 0.026 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
285 Phthalic anhydride 85-44-9 Respiratory, Urinary Lung and kidney histopathology Chronic mouse oral study NCI, 1979 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 1562.0 mg/kg-day 2.0 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
286 Picloram 1918-02-1 Hepatic Increased liver weights 6-month dog feeding study Dow Chemical, 1982a No Observed Effect Level 7.0 mg/kg-day 0.07 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
287 Pirimiphos-methyl 29232-93-7 Nervous Transient plasma ChE depression 56-day human feeding study ICI Americas, 1976a No Observed Effect Level 0.25 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 25 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
288 Potassium cyanide 151-50-8 Reproductive Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for potassium cyanide is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. None None None None None 0.002 mg/kg-day None None None None None None Chronic
289 Potassium silver cyanide 506-61-6 Reproductive Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for potassium cyanide is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. None None None None None 0.005 mg/kg-day None None None None None None Chronic
290 Prochloraz 67747-09-5 Hepatic Increase in SAP and liver weights, liver histopathology 2-year dog feeding study FBC Limited, 1981 No Observed Effect Level 0.9 mg/kg-day 0.009 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
291 Prometon 1610-18-0 Other No treatment related effects observed Subchronic rat feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1982a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.015 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
292 Prometryn 7287-19-6 Hematologic, Hepatic, Immune, Urinary Liver and kidney degeneration and bone marrow atrophy 106-week dog feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1965a No Observed Effect Level 3.75 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
293 Pronamide 23950-58-5 Other No effects 2-year dog feeding study Rohm & Haas, Co., 1970a No Observed Effect Level 7.5 mg/kg-day 0.075 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
294 Propachlor 1918-16-7 Hepatic, Other Decreased weight gain, food consumption increased relative liver weights 90-day feeding study in rats Monsanto Co., 1964a No Observed Effect Level 13.3 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
295 Propanil 709-98-8 Immune Increased relative spleen weight in females 2-year rat feeding study Rohm and Haas Co., 1964a No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
296 Propargite 2312-35-8 Developmental, Musculoskeletal, Other Reduced body weight gain (maternal), increased resorption, reduced body weight (fetal), delayed ossification Rabbit developmental toxicity study (NOEL maternal and fetotoxic) Uniroyal Chemical, 1982 No Observed Effect Level 2.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
297 Propargyl alcohol 107-19-7 Hepatic, Urinary Renal and hepatotoxicity Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1987 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.002 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
298 Propazine 139-40-2 Other Decrease in body weight 2-year rat feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1980a No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
299 Propham 122-42-9 Immune, Nervous Increase in male spleen weight and ChE depression in females 90-day rat feeding study PPG Industries, 1979 No Observed Effect Level 50.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
300 Propiconazole 60207-90-1 Gastrointestinal Gastric mucosal irritation 1-year dog feeding study Ciba Geigy, 1985a No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
301 Pursuit 81335-77-5 Hematologic Decreased packed cell volume, hemoglobin, erythrocytes in females 1-year dog study oral exposure (diet) American Cyanamid Co., 1987a No Observed Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.25 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
302 Pydrin 51630-58-1 Nervous Neurological dysfunction 13-week rat feeding study Shell Development Co., 1984 No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
303 Pyrene 129-00-0 Urinary Kidney effects (renal tubular pathology, decreased kidney weights) Mouse subchronic oral bioassay U.S. EPA, 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 75.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
304 Pyridine 110-86-1 Hepatic Increased liver weight 90-day rat oral gavage study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
305 Quinalphos 13593-03-8 Other No adverse effects reported Two-year dog feeding study Sandoz, Ltd., 1980a No Observed Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
306 Resmethrin 10453-86-8 Reproductive Reproductive toxicity 3-generation rat reproduction study Penwick Corp., 1979a Lowest Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
307 Rotenone 83-79-4 Developmental Reduced pup weight 2-generation rat reproduction study U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1983 No Observed Effect Level 0.38 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium None Chronic
308 Savey 78587-05-0 Endocrine, Hematologic Hypertrophy of adrenal cortex (both sexes) hematologic effects (males) 1-year dog feeding study du Pont, 1984a No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
309 Selenious acid 7783-00-8 Dermal, Hematologic, Nervous Clinical selenosis Human epidemiological study Yang et al., 1989b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.015 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 3 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
310 Selenium and Compounds 7782-49-2 Dermal, Hematologic, Nervous Clinical selenosis Human epidemiological study Yang et al., 1989b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.015 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 3 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
311 Sethoxydim 74051-80-2 Hematologic Mild anemia in males 1-year dog study oral exposure (diet) (NOEL for males) BASF Corporation, 1984 No Observed Effect Level 8.86 mg/kg-day 0.09 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
312 Silver 7440-22-4 Dermal Argyria 2- to 9-year human i.v. study Gaul and Staud, 1935 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.014 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 3 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
313 Silver cyanide 506-64-9 Endocrine, Nervous, Other Weight loss, thyroid effects, and myelin degeneration Rat chronic oral study Howard and Hanzal, 1955 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 55.7 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 100 5 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
314 Simazine 122-34-9 Hematologic, Other Reduction in weight gains hematological changes in females 2-year rat feeding study Ciba-Geigy Corp., 1988a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.52 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
315 Sodium azide 26628-22-8 Other Clinical sign (e.g., hunched postures) and reduced body weight Rat oral subchronic study NCI, 1981 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.57 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
316 Sodium cyanide 143-33-9 Reproductive Decreased cauda epididymis weight in male F344/N rats. The RfD for potassium cyanide is presented in section I.A.3 of the hydrogen cyanide and cyanide salts IRIS Summary. None None None None None 0.001 mg/kg-day None None None None None None Chronic
317 Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate 148-18-5 Other Reduced body weight Rat subchronic oral study Sunderman et al., 1967 No Observed Effect Level 30.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
318 Sodium fluoroacetate 62-74-8 Cardiovascular, Reproductive Increased heart weight in females and males; decreased testis weight and altered spermatogenesis in males. 13-week rat oral study (gavage) U.S. EPA, 1988 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.05 mg/kg-day 2e-05 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
319 Strontium 7440-24-6 Musculoskeletal Rachitic bone 20-day, 9-week, and 3-year oral studies in young and adult rats Storey, 1961; Marie et al., 1985; Skoryna, 1981 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 190.0 mg/kg-day 0.6 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
320 Strychnine 57-24-9 Other Toxicity/histopathology Rat oral short-term to subchronic study Seidl and Zbinden, 1982 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 10000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
321 Styrene 100-42-5 Hematologic, Hepatic Red blood cell and liver effects Dog subchronic oral study Quast et al., 1979 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 200.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
322 Systhane 88671-89-0 Reproductive Testicular atrophy 2-year chronic rat feeding study Rohm and Haas, 1986a No Observed Effect Level 2.49 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
323 Tebuthiuron 34014-18-1 Other Depressed body weight gain in F1 females 2-generation rat reproduction study Elanco Products, 1981 No Observed Effect Level 7.0 mg/kg-day 0.07 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
324 Terbacil 5902-51-2 Endocrine, Hepatic Increase in thyroid/body weight ratio; slight increase in liver weights; elevated alkaline phosphatase 2-year dog feeding study duPont, 1967a No Observed Effect Level 1.25 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
325 Terbutryn 886-50-0 Hematologic Hematologic effects in females 2-year rat feeding study Ciba-Geigy, 1980a No Observed Effect Level 0.1 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
326 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) 5436-43-1 Nervous Neurobehavioral effects Single dose gavage study in mice Eriksson et al., 2001 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.35 mg/kg 0.0001 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Benchmark Chronic
327 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene 95-94-3 Urinary Kidney lesions Rat oral subchronic study Chu et al., 1984 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.34 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
328 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1746-01-6 Developmental, Endocrine, Reproductive Decreased sperm count and motility in men exposed to TCDD as boys / Increased TSH in neonates Epidemiologic cohort study Mocarelli et al., 2008 / Baccarelli et al., 2008 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2e-08 mg/kg-day 7e-10 mg/kg-day 30 1 High High High None Chronic
329 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin 1746-01-6 Reproductive Decreased sperm count and motility in men exposed to TCDD as boys / Increased TSH in neonates Epidemiologic cohort study Mocarelli et al., (2008) / Baccarelli et al., (2008) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2e-08 mg/kg-day 7e-10 mg/kg-day 30 None High High High None None
330 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 Hepatic Increased relative liver weight in rats Subchronic dietary study NTP (2004) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
331 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79-34-5 Hepatic Increased relative liver weight in rats Subchronic dietary study NTP (2004) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium None Chronic
332 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane 630-20-6 Hepatic, Urinary Mineralization of the kidneys in males, hepatic clear cell change in females Rat, chronic oral gavage study NTP, 1983 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 89.3 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
333 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 Nervous, Ocular (See Note) None None None None None 0.006 mg/kg-day None None Medium Medium Medium None Chronic
334 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol 58-90-2 Hepatic Increased liver weights and centrilobular hypertrophy Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
335 Tetrachlorovinphos 961-11-5 Hepatic, Nervous, Other, Urinary Reduced body weight gain, increased liver and kidney weights, and RBC ChE inhibition Two-year dog feeding study Shell Chemical Co., 1968 No Observed Effect Level 3.13 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
336 Tetraethyl lead 78-00-2 Hepatic, Immune Histopathology of liver and thymus Rat subchronic study Schepers, 1964 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.0012 mg/kg-day 1e-07 mg/kg-day 10000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
337 Tetraethyldithiopyrophosphate 3689-24-5 Nervous Depressed RBC and plasma cholinesterase activity Rat subchronic oral study Kimmerle and Klimmer, 1974 No Observed Effect Level 0.5 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
338 Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 Developmental Decreased pup body weight gain Rat two-generation reproduction study Hellwig et al. (2002)/BASF (1996) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 928.0 mg/kg-day 0.9 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low/Medium None Chronic
339 Thiobencarb 28249-77-6 Other, Urinary Decrease in body weight, increase in BUN 2-year rat feeding study Chevron Chemical, 1984a No Observed Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
340 Thiophanate-methyl 23564-05-8 Endocrine, Other, Reproductive Decreased body weight, decreased spermatogenesis, and histological evidence of hyperthyroidism 2-year rat feeding study Pennwalt Corp., 1972a No Observed Effect Level 8.0 mg/kg-day 0.08 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
341 Thiram 137-26-8 Nervous Neurotoxicity 2-year rat feeding study duPont, 1954 No Observed Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
342 Toluene 108-88-3 Urinary Increased kidney weight 13-week gavage study in rats NTP, 1990 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 238.0 mg/kg-day 0.08 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
343 Tralomethrin 66841-25-6 Other Decreased body weight gain in males increased food and water consumption in males and females 2-year rat feeding study Roussel UCLAF, 1984 No Observed Effect Level 0.75 mg/kg-day 0.0075 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
344 Triallate 2303-17-5 Hepatic, Other Increased hemosiderin deposition, serum alkaline phosphatase, and liver weight in females 2-year dog feeding study Monsanto, 1979 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.275 mg/kg-day 0.013 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
345 Triasulfuron 82097-50-5 Hepatic Centrilobular hepatocytomegaly in males 2-year mouse feeding/carcinogenicity study Ciba-Geigy Corporation, 1988 No Observed Effect Level 1.2 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
346 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene 615-54-3 Hepatic Increased liver-to-body weight ratio and hepatic microsomal enzyme induction Rat oral subchronic study Carlson and Tardiff, 1977 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
347 Tributyltin oxide (TBTO) 56-35-9 Immune Immunosuppression 18-month immunotoxicity study in rats Vos et al., 1990 Benchmark Dose 0.03 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
348 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113) 76-13-1 Nervous Psychomotor impairment Epidemiologic study: human occupational exposure Imbus and Adkins, 1972 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 273.0 mg/kg-day 30.0 mg/kg-day 10 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
349 Trichloroacetic acid 76-03-9 Hepatic Hepatocellular necrosis 60-week drinking water exposure study, male B6C3F1 mice DeAngelo et al., 2008 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 18.0 mg/kg-day 0.02 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium None Chronic
350 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene 120-82-1 Endocrine Increased adrenal weights; vacuolization of zona fasciculata in the cortex Rat reproductive study Robinson et al., 1981 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 14.8 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
351 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Other Reduced body weight 90-Day mouse dietary study NTP (2000) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 2155.0 mg/kg-day 2.0 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Low/Medium Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
352 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Other Reduced body weight 90-Day mouse dietary study NTP (2000) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 2155.0 mg/kg-day 7.0 mg/kg-day 300 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium None Subchronic
353 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79-00-5 Hematologic, Immune Clinical serum chemistry (effects on erythrocytes and depressed humoral immune status) Mouse subchronic drinking water study White et al., 1985 Sanders et al., 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.9 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
354 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 Developmental, Immune (See Note) None None None None None 0.0005 mg/kg-day None 1 High High High None Chronic
355 Trichlorofluoromethane 75-69-4 Cardiovascular, Other, Respiratory Survival and histopathology (pleuritis and pericarditis) Cancer bioassay studies in rats and mice NCI, 1978 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 349.0 mg/kg-day 0.3 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
356 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol 95-95-4 Hepatic, Urinary Liver and kidney pathology Rat oral subchronic study McCollister et al., 1961 No Observed Effect Level 100.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
357 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP) 93-72-1 Hepatic Histopathological changes in liver Dog chronic oral bioassay Mullison, 1966; Gehring and Betso, 1978 No Observed Effect Level 0.75 mg/kg-day 0.008 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
358 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) 93-76-5 Urinary Increased urinary coproporphyrins 2-year rat feeding study Kociba et al., 1979 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.0 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
359 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 Hepatic Increased absolute liver weight in male rats 2-year bioassay NTP, 1993 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 1.1 mg/kg-day 0.004 mg/kg-day 300 1 High Medium/High Medium/High Benchmark Chronic
360 1,1,2-Trichloropropane 598-77-6 Endocrine, Hepatic, Urinary Mild lesions in liver, kidney and thyroid Rat oral subchronic study Villeneuve et al., 1985 No Observed Effect Level 15.0 mg/kg-day 0.005 mg/kg-day 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
361 Tridiphane 58138-08-2 Other, Reproductive Decreased fertility index and depressed body weight of dams Rat, 2-generation reproduction study Dow Chemical, 1984 No Observed Effect Level 0.33 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
362 Trifluralin 1582-09-8 Hematologic, Hepatic Increased liver weights; increase in methemoglobin 12-month dog feeding study Hoechst Aktiengesellschaft, 1984a No Observed Effect Level 0.75 mg/kg-day 0.0075 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
363 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/m3 100 1 None None Low Benchmark Subchronic
364 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Low Low Benchmark Subchronic
365 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low Benchmark Chronic
366 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low Benchmark Chronic
367 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.04 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Low Low Benchmark Subchronic
368 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 3.5 mg/kg-day 0.01 mg/kg-day 300 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low Benchmark Chronic
369 1,3,5-Trinitrobenzene 99-35-4 Hematologic Methemoglobinemia and spleen-erythroid cell hyperplasia Rat 2-year dietary study Reddy et al., 1996, 1997 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.68 mg/kg-day 0.03 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
370 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) 118-96-7 Hepatic Liver effects 26-week dog feeding study U.S. DOD, 1983 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.5 mg/kg-day 0.0005 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
371 Uranium, soluble salts Various Other, Urinary Initial body weight loss moderate nephrotoxicity 30-day oral rabbit bioassay (diet) Maynard and Hodge, 1949 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.8 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
372 Vanadium pentoxide 1314-62-1 Dermal Decreased hair cystine Rat chronic oral study Stokinger et al., 1953 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.89 mg/kg-day 0.009 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
373 Vernam 1929-77-7 Other Decreased body weight 2-generation reproduction rat study Stauffer Chemical Co., 1983 No Observed Effect Level 1.0 mg/kg-day 0.001 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Low Low Threshold Chronic
374 Vinclozolin 50471-44-8 Endocrine, Urinary Organ weight changes (adrenal and kidney) 6-month dog feeding study BASF Corp., 1982 No Observed Effect Level 2.5 mg/kg-day 0.025 mg/kg-day 100 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
375 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Hepatic Liver cell polymorphism Rat chronic feeding study Til et al., 1983, 1991 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.09 mg/kg-day 0.003 mg/kg-day 30 1 High Medium/High Medium Threshold Chronic
376 Warfarin 81-81-2 Hematologic Increased prothrombin time Human clinical studies Huff, 1985 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.029 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 100 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
377 White phosphorus 7723-14-0 Dermal, Reproductive Parturition mortality; forelimb hair loss Reproductive rat study Condray, 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.015 mg/kg-day 2e-05 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
378 Xylenes 1330-20-7 Other Decreased body weight, increased mortality Chronic F344/N rat study, Oral gavage exposure NTP, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 179.0 mg/kg-day 0.2 mg/kg-day 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
379 Zinc and Compounds 7440-66-6 Hematologic, Immune Decreases in erythrocyte Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (ESOD) activity in healthy adult male and female volunteers None Yadrick et al., 1989, Fischer et al., 1984, Davis et al., 2000, Milne et al., 2001 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.91 mg/kg-day 0.3 mg/kg-day 3 1 Medium/High High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
380 Zinc cyanide 557-21-1 Endocrine, Nervous, Other Weight loss, thyroid effects, and myelin degeneration Rat chronic oral study Howard and Hanzal, 1955 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 24.3 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 100 5 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
381 Zinc phosphide 1314-84-7 Other Reduction of food intake and body weight Rat subchronic oral study Bai et al, 1980 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.48 mg/kg-day 0.0003 mg/kg-day 10000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
382 Zineb 12122-67-7 Endocrine Thyroid hyperplasia Rat, chronic oral bioassay Blackwell-Smith et al., 1953 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 25.0 mg/kg-day 0.05 mg/kg-day 500 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
383 n-Butanol 71-36-3 Nervous Hypoactivity and ataxia Rat oral subchronic study U.S. EPA, 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 125.0 mg/kg-day 0.1 mg/kg-day 1000 1 High Low Low Threshold Chronic
384 tert-Butyl Alcohol (tBA) 75-65-0 Urinary Increased severity of nephropathy 2-year drinking water study in female rats NTP 1995 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 43.2 mg/kg-day 0.4 mg/kg-day 100 1 High Medium Medium Benchmark Chronic

  CHEMICAL NAME CASRN PRINCIPAL CRITICAL EFFECT SYSTEM PRINCIPAL CRITICAL DESCRIPTION PRINCIPAL STUDY STUDY CITATION EXPERIMENTAL DOSE TYPE POD VALUE RFC VALUE UNCERTAINTY FACTOR MODIFYING FACTOR STUDY CONFIDENCE DATA CONFIDENCE OVERALL CONFIDENCE DOSE TYPE DURATION
1 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 Nervous, Respiratory Degeneration of olfactory epithelium Short-term rat inhalation studies Appleman et al., 1986 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 8.7 mg/m3 0.009 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
2 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Other Mortality Mouse subchronic/chronic inhalation studies NTP, 1996 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 60.0 mg/m3 0.06 mg/m3 100 10 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
3 Acrolein 107-02-8 Respiratory Nasal lesions Subchronic rat inhalation study Feron et. al., 1978 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.02 mg/m3 2e-05 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low/Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
4 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Nervous Degenerative nerve changes Chronic rat study Johnson et al. 1986 Human Equivalent Concentration 0.18 mg/m3 0.006 mg/m3 30 1 Medium/High Low/Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
5 Acrylic acid 79-10-7 Nervous, Respiratory Degeneration of the nasal olfactory epithelium Mouse subchronic inhalation study Miller et al., 1981a Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.33 mg/m3 0.001 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
6 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Respiratory Degeneration and inflammation of nasal respiratory epithelium; hyperplasia of mucous secreting cells Rat 2-year inhalation study Quast et al., 1980 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.9 mg/m3 0.002 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
7 Allyl chloride 107-05-1 Nervous Functional and histological peripheral neurotoxicity Rabbit subchronic inhalation study Lu et al., 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.6 mg/m3 0.001 mg/m3 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
8 Ammonia 7664-41-7 Respiratory Decreased lung function and respiratory symptoms Occupational epidemiology studies Holness et al. (1989), supported by Rahman et al. (2007), Ballal et al. (1998), and Ali et al. (2001) No Observable Adverse Effect Level 4.9 mg/m3 0.5 mg/m3 10 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
9 Aniline 62-53-3 Hematologic Methemoglobin increase, spleen toxicity 20-26 week inhalation rat, guinea pig and mouse study Oberst et al., 1956 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 3.4 mg/m3 0.001 mg/m3 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
10 Antimony trioxide 1309-64-4 Respiratory Pulmonary toxicity, chronic interstitial inflammation Rat 1-year inhalation toxicity study Newton et al., 1994 Benchmark Concentration 0.074 mg/m3 0.0002 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
11 Arsine 7784-42-1 Hematologic, Immune Increased hemolysis, abnormal RBC morphology, and increased spleen weight 13-week rat and mouse and 28-day hamster inhalation study Blair et al., 1990a,b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.014 mg/m3 5e-05 mg/m3 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
12 Benzene 71-43-2 Immune Decreased lymphocyte count Human occupational inhalation study Rothman et. al., 1996 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 8.2 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
13 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Developmental Decreased embryo/fetal survival Developmental toxicity study in rats (GDs 11−20) Archibong et al. (2002) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.0046 mg/m3 2e-06 mg/m3 3000 1 Low/Medium Low Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
14 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 Reproductive Reduced ovulation rate and ovary weight Premating study in rats (14 d) Archibong et al. (2012) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.0091 mg/m3 3e-06 mg/m3 3000 1 None None Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
15 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Immune, Respiratory Beryllium sensitization and progression to CBD Occupational study Kreiss et al., 1996 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.0002 mg/m3 2e-05 mg/m3 10 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
16 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Hepatic Hepatocellular cytomegaly in female B6C3F1 mice 13-week inhalation study NTP (1985d) Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 63.0 mg/m3 0.06 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium None Chronic
17 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Hepatic Hepatocellular cytomegaly in female B6C3F1 mice 13-week inhalation study NTP (1985d) Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 63.0 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium None Subchronic
18 Bromomethane 74-83-9 Nervous, Respiratory Degenerative and proliferative lesions of the olfactory epithelium of the nasal cavity Rat 29-month inhalation study Reuzel et al., 1987, 1991 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.48 mg/m3 0.005 mg/m3 100 1 Medium High High Threshold Chronic
19 1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 Reproductive Ovarian atrophy 2-year mouse inhalation study NTP, 1993 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 1.98 mg/m3 0.002 mg/m3 1000 1 High High Medium Threshold Chronic
20 Carbon disulfide 75-15-0 Nervous Peripheral nervous system dysfunction Occupational study Johnson et al., 1983 Benchmark Concentration 19.7 mg/m3 0.7 mg/m3 30 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
21 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Hepatic Fatty changes in the liver Chronic inhalation toxicity study in rats Nagano et al., 2007b, JBRC, 1998 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 14.3 mg/m3 0.1 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
22 Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds 1306-38-3 Respiratory Increased incidence of alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in the lungs of male and female rats Subchronic inhalation study BRL, 1994 (unpublished study) Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 0.86 mg/m3 0.0009 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low Low Benchmark Chronic
23 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Hepatic Hepatic effects Rat subchronic inhalation study Khasawinah et al., 1989a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.65 mg/m3 0.0007 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
24 Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 Cardiovascular, Respiratory Vascular congestion and peribronchial edema 60-day rat inhalation study Paulet and Desbrousses, 1972 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.64 mg/m3 0.0002 mg/m3 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
25 1-Chloro-1,1-difluoroethane 75-68-3 Other No adverse effects 2-year rat inhalation study Seckar et al., 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 14710.0 mg/m3 50.0 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
26 2-Chloroacetophenone 532-27-4 Respiratory Squamous hyperplasia of the nasal respiratory epithelium Chronic rat inhalation study NTP, 1990 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.03 mg/m3 3e-05 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
27 Chlorodifluoromethane 75-45-6 Endocrine, Urinary Increased kidney, adrenal and pituitary weights Chronic rat inhalation study Tinston et al., 1981a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5260.0 mg/m3 50.0 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
28 Chloroprene 126-99-8 Immune, Nervous, Respiratory Increase in incidence of olfactory atrophy, alveolar hyperplasia, and splenic hematopoietic proliferation in male F344/N rats, female F344/N rats, and female B6C3F1 mice, respectively 2-year chronic inhalation study NTP, 1998 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 2.0 mg/m3 0.02 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
29 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Respiratory Nasal septum atrophy Human subchronic occupational study Lindberg and Hedenstierna, 1983 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.000714 mg/m3 8e-06 mg/m3 90 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
30 Chromium(VI) 18540-29-9 Respiratory Lactate dehydrogenase in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid Rat subchronic study Glaser et al., 1990; Malsch et al., 1994 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 0.034 mg/m3 0.0001 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Not Available Medium Threshold Chronic
31 Cumene 98-82-8 Endocrine, Urinary Increased kidney weights in female rats and adrenal weights in male and female rats Rat 13-week inhalation study Cushman et al., 1995 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 435.0 mg/m3 0.4 mg/m3 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
32 Cyclohexane 110-82-7 Developmental Reduced pup weights in the F1 and F2 generations Rat, 2-generation reproductive/developmental toxicity study DuPont HLR, 1997a Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 1822.0 mg/m3 6.0 mg/m3 300 1 High Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold None
33 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) 96-12-8 Reproductive Testicular effects 13-week subchronic rabbit inhalation study Rao et al., 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.17 mg/m3 0.0002 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
34 1,2-Dibromoethane 106-93-4 Respiratory Nasal inflammation Mouse chronic inhalation study NTP, 1982 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 2.8 mg/m3 0.009 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Benchmark Chronic
35 1,4-Dichlorobenzene 106-46-7 Hepatic Increased liver weights in P1 males Rat multigeneration reproductive study Chlorobenzene Producers Assn., 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 75.0 mg/m3 0.8 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
36 1,1-Dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) 75-35-4 Hepatic Liver toxicity (fatty change) Rat chronic inhalation study Quast et al., 1986 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 6.9 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 30 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
37 Dichloromethane 75-09-2 Hepatic Hepatic effects (hepatic vacuolation) 2-Year rat inhalation bioassay Nitschke et al. (1988a) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 17.2 mg/m3 0.6 mg/m3 30 1 High Medium/High Medium/High None Chronic
38 1,2-Dichloropropane 78-87-5 Respiratory Hyperplasia of the nasal mucosa Rat 13-week inhalation study Nitschke et al., 1988 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 1.3 mg/m3 0.004 mg/m3 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold None
39 1,3-Dichloropropene 542-75-6 Respiratory Hypertrophy/ hyperplasia of the nasal respiratory epithelium Chronic inhalation study in B6C3F1 mice Lomax et al., 1989 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 0.72 mg/m3 0.02 mg/m3 30 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
40 Dichlorvos 62-73-7 Nervous Decreased brain cholinesterase activity Carworth Farm E strain rat chronic inhalation study Blair et al., 1976 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.05 mg/m3 0.0005 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
41 Diesel engine exhaust None Respiratory Pulmonary inflammation and histopathology Rat chronic inhalation study Ishinishi et. al., (1988) No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.144 mg/m3 0.005 mg/m3 30 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
42 1,1-Difluoroethane 75-37-6 Other No adverse effects observed 2-year inhalation study McAlack and Schneider, 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 12051.0 mg/m3 40.0 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
43 N,N-Dimethylformamide 68-12-2 Hepatic Digestive disturbances and minimal hepatic changes suggestive of liver abnormalities Human occupational studies Cirla et al., 1984; Catenacci et al., 1984 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 7.9 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
44 1,4-Dioxane 123-91-1 Nervous, Respiratory Atrophy and respiratory metaplasia of the olfactory epithelium Chronic inhalation male rat study Kasai et al. 2009 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 32.2 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium None Chronic
45 Epichlorohydrin 106-89-8 Respiratory Changes in the nasal turbinates Rat and mouse 90-day inhalation study Quast et al., 1979a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.36 mg/m3 0.001 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
46 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU) 106-88-7 Respiratory Degenerative lesions of the nasal cavity 2-year mouse inhalation study NTP, 1988 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 4.8 mg/m3 0.02 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
47 2-Ethoxyethanol 110-80-5 Hematologic, Reproductive Decreased testis weight, seminiferous tubule degeneration and decreased hemoglobin New Zealand White Rabbit subchronic toxicity study Barbee et al., 1984 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 68.0 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
48 Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) 637-92-3 Urinary Increased absolute kidney weight in female rats 2-year inhalation study in male and female F344 rats Saito et al., 2013; JPEC, 2010b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1110.0 mg/m3 40.0 mg/m3 30 1 Medium High Medium Threshold Chronic
49 Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 Developmental, Musculoskeletal Delayed fetal ossification Mouse developmental inhalation study Scortichini et al., 1986 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 4000.0 mg/m3 10.0 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
50 Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 Developmental Developmental toxicity Rat and rabbit developmental inhalation studies Andrew et al., 1981; Hardin et al., 1981 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 434.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/m3 300 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
51 Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) (2-Butoxyethanol) 111-76-2 Hematologic Hemosiderin deposition in the liver Chronic (rat and mouse) inhalation study NTP (2000) Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 16.0 mg/m3 1.6 mg/m3 10 1 High Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
52 Hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCPD) 77-47-4 Respiratory Suppurative inflammation of the nose Chronic inhalation study in B6C3F1 mice NTP, 1994 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.024 mg/m3 0.0002 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
53 Hexachloroethane 67-72-1 Nervous Neurotoxicity (tremors and ruffled pelt) 6-week subchronic inhalation study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats Weeks et al., 1979 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 83.0 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 3000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
54 1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate 822-06-0 Nervous, Respiratory Degeneration of olfactory epithelium Rat chronic inhalation study Mobay, Inc., 1989 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.001 mg/m3 1e-05 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
55 n-Hexane 110-54-3 Nervous Peripheral neuropathy (decreased MCV at 12 weeks) Rat subchronic inhalation study Huang et al., 1989 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 215.0 mg/m3 0.7 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
56 2-Hexanone 591-78-6 Nervous Motor conduction velocity of the sciatic-tibial nerve Subchronic inhalation study in monkeys Johnson et al., 1977 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 90.0 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 3000 1 Medium Low Low Benchmark Chronic
57 Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanide Salts Various Endocrine Thyroid enlargement and altered iodide uptake Epidemiology study El Ghawabi et al., 1975 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.5 mg/m3 0.0008 mg/m3 3000 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
58 Hydrogen chloride 7647-01-0 Respiratory Hyperplasia of nasal mucosa larynx and trachea Rat chronic inhalation study Sellakumar et al., 1994; Albert et al., 1982 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 6.1 mg/m3 0.02 mg/m3 300 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
59 Hydrogen sulfide 7783-06-4 Nervous, Respiratory Nasal lesions of the olfactory mucosa Rat Subchronic Inhalation Study Brenneman et. al., 2000 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.64 mg/m3 0.002 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
60 Libby Amphibole Asbestos 1318-09-8 Respiratory Localized pleural thickening Occupational epidemiology study Rohs et al. (2008) Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 0.026 fiber/cc 9e-05 fiber/cc 300 1 Medium Medium Medium None Chronic
61 Manganese 7439-96-5 Nervous Impairment of neurobehavioral function Occupational exposure to manganese dioxide Roels et al., 1992 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.05 mg/m3 5e-05 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
62 Mercury, elemental 7439-97-6 Nervous Hand tremor; increases in memory disturbances; slight subjective and objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction Human occupational inhalation studies Fawer et al., 1983; Piikivi and Tolonen, 1989; Piikivi and Hanninen, 1989; Piikivi, 1989; Ngim et al., 1992; Liang et al., 1993 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.009 mg/m3 0.0003 mg/m3 30 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
63 Methanol 67-56-1 Developmental, Nervous Reduced brain weight in rat pups at 6 weeks of age Male Sprague-Dawley rats, Developmental inhalation exposure through gestation and 3, 6 or 8 weeks postnatal NEDO (1987) Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 858.0 mg-hr/L 20.0 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium/High None Chronic
64 2-Methoxyethanol 109-86-4 Reproductive Testicular effects Subchronic inhalation studies in male New Zealand White Rabbits and Sprague-Dawley rats Miller et al., 1983 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 17.0 mg/m3 0.02 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
65 Methyl chloride 74-87-3 Nervous Cerebellar lesions Mouse 11-day continuous inhalation study Landry et al., 1983, 1985 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 94.6 mg/m3 0.09 mg/m3 1000 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
66 Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) 78-93-3 Developmental, Musculoskeletal Developmental toxicity (skeletal variations) Mouse developmental study Schwetz et al., 1991 Lowest Effect Concentration 1517.0 mg/m3 5.0 mg/m3 300 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
67 Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) 108-10-1 Developmental, Musculoskeletal Reduced fetal body weight, skeletal variations, and increased fetal death in mice, and skeletal variations in rats. Rat and mouse developmental inhalation study Tyl et. al., 1987 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1026.0 mg/m3 3.0 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
68 Methyl methacrylate 80-62-6 Nervous, Respiratory Degeneration/ atrophy of olfactory epithelium (male rats) Rat chronic inhalation study Hazelton Laboratories 1979a Lomax, 1992 Lomax et al., 1997 Benchmark Concentration 7.2 mg/m3 0.7 mg/m3 10 1 High Medium/High Medium/High Threshold Chronic
69 Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) 1634-04-4 Hepatic, Ocular, Other, Urinary Increased absolute and relative liver and kidney weights and increased severity of spontaneous renal lesions (females), increased prostration (females), and swollen periocular tissue (males and females) Chronic rat 24-month inhalation study Chun et al., 1992 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 259.0 mg/m3 3.0 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
70 Methylene Diphenyl Diisocyanate (monomeric MDI) and polymeric MDI (PMDI) 101-68-8 Nervous, Respiratory Hyperplasia of olfactory epithelium Rat inhalation studies Reuzel et al., 1990, 1994b Benchmark Concentration 0.06 mg/m3 0.0006 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
71 Naphthalene 91-20-3 Nervous, Respiratory Nasal effects: hyperplasia and metaplasia in respiratory and olfactory epithelium, respectively Chronic mouse inhalation study NTP, 1992a Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 9.3 mg/m3 0.003 mg/m3 3000 1 Medium Low/Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
72 Nitrobenzene 98-95-3 Nervous, Respiratory Bronchiolization of the alveoli and olfactory degeneration Chronic mouse study CIIT, 1993 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 0.26 mg/m3 0.009 mg/m3 30 1 High High Medium None Chronic
73 2-Nitropropane 79-46-9 Hepatic Liver focal vacuolization and nodules Rat chronic inhalation study Griffin et al., 1980, 1981; Angus Chemical Co., 1985a, b Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 16.0 mg/m3 0.02 mg/m3 1000 1 Low Low Low Threshold Chronic
74 Phosgene 75-44-5 Respiratory Collagen staining indicative of fibrosis Subchronic inhalation study in rats Kodavanti et al., 1997 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 0.03 mg/m3 0.0003 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Benchmark Chronic
75 Phosphine 7803-51-2 Other Decreased body weight Mouse subchronic inhalation study Barbosa et al., 1994 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.25 mg/m3 0.0003 mg/m3 1000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
76 Phosphoric acid 7664-38-2 Respiratory Bronchiolar fibrosis 13-week rat inhalation study Aranyi et al., 1988a Benchmark Concentration 3.4 mg/m3 0.01 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
77 Propionaldehyde 123-38-6 Nervous, Respiratory Atrophy of olfactory epithelium Subchronic inhalation study in rats Union Carbide, 1993 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 8.0 mg/m3 0.008 mg/m3 1000 1 Low/Medium Low Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
78 Propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) 107-98-2 Nervous Mild reversible sedation Rat/rabbit subchronic inhalation study Landry et al., 1983 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 658.0 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
79 Propylene oxide 75-56-9 Respiratory Nest-like infolds of the nasal respiratory epithelium 2-year rat chronic inhalation study Kuper et al., 1988 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.9 mg/m3 0.03 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
80 Styrene 100-42-5 Nervous CNS effects Occupational study Mutti et al., 1984 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 34.0 mg/m3 1.0 mg/m3 30 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
81 Tetrachloroethylene 127-18-4 Nervous, Ocular (See Note) None None None None None 0.04 mg/m3 None None Medium Medium Medium None Chronic
82 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane 811-97-2 Reproductive Leydig cell hyperplasia Rat chronic inhalation study Collins et al., 1995 Benchmark Concentration 8200.0 mg/m3 80.0 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
83 Tetrahydrofuran 109-99-9 Hepatic, Nervous Increased liver weight and centrilobular cytomegaly, CNS effects (narcosis) Subchronic mouse study NTP (1998) Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 2.46e-10 mg/m3 2.0 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium/High Medium/High None Chronic
84 Toluene 108-88-3 Nervous Neurological effects in occupationally-exposed workers Multiple human studies Abbate et al., 1993, Boey et al., 1997, Cavalleri et al., 2000, Eller et al., 1999, Foo et al., 1990, Murata et al., 1993, Nakatsuka et al., 1992, Neubert et al., 2001, Vrca et al., 1995, Zavalic et al., 1998a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 46.0 mg/m3 5.0 mg/m3 10 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
85 2,4-/2,6-Toluene diisocyanate mixture (TDI) 26471-62-5 Respiratory Chronic lung-function decline Prospective occupational study Diem et al., 1982 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 0.002 mg/m3 7e-05 mg/m3 30 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
86 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Nervous Performance on neurobehavioral tests Human subjects exposed for 3.5 hr Mackay et al. (1987) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 950.0 mg/m3 9.0 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium None None
87 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Hepatic Liver histopathologic changes 2-Year inhalation rat study, 14-Week inhalation mouse study Quast et al. (1988, 1984), McNutt et al. (1975) No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1553.0 mg/m3 5.0 mg/m3 100 1 Low Medium Medium None Subchronic
88 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Hepatic Liver histopathologic changes 2-Year inhalation rat study, 14-Week inhalation mouse study Quast et al. (1988, 1984), McNutt et al. (1975) No Observable Adverse Effect Level 1553.0 mg/m3 5.0 mg/m3 100 1 Low Medium Medium None Chronic
89 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Nervous Performance on neurobehavioral tests Human subjects exposed for 3.5 hr Mackay et al. (1987) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 950.0 mg/m3 7.0 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium None None
90 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Nervous Performance on neurobehavioral tests Human subjects exposed for 3.5 hr Mackay et al. (1987) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 950.0 mg/m3 7.0 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium None None
91 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Nervous Performance on neurobehavioral tests Human subjects exposed for 3.5 hr Mackay et al. (1987) No Observable Adverse Effect Level 950.0 mg/m3 6.0 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium None None
92 1,1,1-Trichloroethane 71-55-6 Nervous Performance on neurobehavioral tests Human subjects exposed for 3.5 hr Mackay et al. (1987) Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 526.0 mg/kg-day 5.0 mg/m3 100 1 Medium Medium Medium None None
93 Trichloroethylene 79-01-6 Developmental, Immune (See Note) None None None None None 0.002 mg/m3 None None High High High None Chronic
94 1,2,3-Trichloropropane 96-18-4 Respiratory peribronchial lymphoid hyperplasia in male rats 13-week inhalation Study Johannsen et al., 1988 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 0.9 mg/m3 0.0003 mg/m3 3000 1 Low/Medium Low Low Benchmark Chronic
95 Triethylamine 121-44-8 Respiratory Inflammation of the nasal passage 28-week rat inhalation study Lynch et al., 1990 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 19.5 mg/m3 0.007 mg/m3 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
96 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Other Decreased maternal weight Saillenfait et al. 2005 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 758.06 mg/m3 3.0 mg/m3 300 1 None None Low/Medium None Chronic
97 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 18.15 mg/m3 0.06 mg/m3 300 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Chronic
98 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Dose based on the LED10 (Lowest Effective Dose) 18.15 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 100 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Threshold Subchronic
99 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Other Decreased maternal weight Saillenfait et al. 2005 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 124.25 mg/m3 0.4 mg/m3 300 1 None None Low/Medium None Chronic
100 1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene 108-67-8 Developmental Decreased fetal weight Saillenfait et al. 2005 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 367.75 mg/m3 4.0 mg/m3 100 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium None Chronic
101 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Respiratory Inflammatory lung lesions Korsak et al. 2000a No Observable Adverse Effect Level 61.65 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 300 1 None None Low/Medium None Chronic
102 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Developmental Decreased fetal weight Saillenfait et al. 2005 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 395.16 mg/m3 4.0 mg/m3 100 1 None None Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
103 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 18.15 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 100 1 None None Low/Medium Benchmark Subchronic
104 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 18.15 mg/m3 0.06 mg/m3 300 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
105 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Respiratory Inflammatory lung lesions Korsak et al. 2000b No Observable Adverse Effect Level 66.56 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 300 1 None None Low/Medium None Chronic
106 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Hematologic Decreased segmented neutrophils Korsak et al. 2000b Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 16.65 mg/m3 0.06 mg/m3 300 1 None None Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
107 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 18.15 mg/m3 0.2 None 100 1 None None Low/Medium Benchmark Subchronic
108 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzene 526-73-8 Nervous Decreased pain sensitivity in male Wistar rats Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 18.15 mg/m3 0.06 mg/m3 300 1 Low/Medium Low/Medium Low/Medium Benchmark Chronic
109 1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Hematologic Decreased clotting time Korsak and Rydzyński 1996 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 24.3 mg/m3 0.08 mg/m3 300 1 None None Low/Medium None Chronic
110 Vinyl acetate 108-05-4 Nervous, Respiratory Nasal epithelial lesions Chronic inhalation study in rats and mice Owen, 1988 Beems, 1988 Dreef-van der Meulen, 1988 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 5.0 mg/m3 0.2 mg/m3 30 1 High High High Threshold Chronic
111 Vinyl bromide 593-60-2 Hepatic Hypertrophy, basophilic and eosinophilic foci, in the liver Chronic rat inhalation study Benya et al., 1982; Busey, 1979 Lowest Observable Adverse Effect Level 7.7 mg/m3 0.003 mg/m3 3000 1 Medium Low Low Threshold Chronic
112 Vinyl chloride 75-01-4 Hepatic Liver cell polymorphism Rat chronic feeding study Til et al., 1983, 1991 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 2.5 mg/m3 0.1 mg/m3 30 1 High Medium/High Medium Threshold Chronic
113 Xylenes 1330-20-7 Nervous Impaired motor coordination (decreased rotarod performance) Subchronic inhalation study in male rats Korsak et. al., 1994 No Observable Adverse Effect Level 39.0 mg/m3 0.1 mg/m3 300 1 Medium Medium Medium Threshold Chronic
114 tert-Butyl Alcohol (tBA) 75-65-0 Urinary Increased severity of nephropathy Route-to-route extrapolation from 2-year drinking water study NTP 1995 Benchmark Concentration based on the LEC10 (Lowest Effective Concentration) 491.0 mg/m3 5.0 mg/m3 100 1 High Medium Medium None Chronic

  CHEMICAL NAME CASRN ROUTE WOE DESCRIPTION WOE TITLE WOE NARRITIVE
1 Acenaphthylene 208-96-8 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and inadequate data from animal bioassays.
2 Acephate 30560-19-1 Undefined C (Possible human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) The classification is based on increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and adenomas in female mice.
3 Acetaldehyde 75-07-0 None B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on increased incidence of nasal tumors in male and female rats and laryngeal tumors in male and female hamsters after inhalation exposure.
4 Acetone 67-64-1 Undefined Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential Revised Draft Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999) In accordance with the Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999) data are inadequate for an assessment of the human carcinogenic potential of acetone.
5 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Undefined Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), the carcinogenic potential of ACN following inhalation, oral, or dermal exposure is best characterized as "cannot be determined because the existing evidence is composed of conflicting data (e.g., some evidence is suggestive of carcinogenic effects, but other equally pertinent evidence does not confirm any concern)."
6 Acetonitrile 75-05-8 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), the carcinogenic potential of ACN following inhalation, oral, or dermal exposure is best characterized as "cannot be determined because the existing evidence is composed of conflicting data (e.g., some evidence is suggestive of carcinogenic effects, but other equally pertinent evidence does not confirm any concern)."
7 Acetophenone 98-86-2 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and no animal data.
8 Acetyl chloride 75-36-5 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data or animal data.
9 Acrolein 107-02-8 Undefined Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential Revised Draft Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999) Under the Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), the potential carcinogenicity of acrolein cannot be determined because the existing data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential for either the oral or inhalation route of exposure. There are no adequate human studies of the carcinogenic potential of acrolein. Collectively, experimental studies provide inadequate evidence that acrolein causes cancer in laboratory animals.
10 Acrylamide 79-06-1 Undefined Likely to be carcinogenic to humans Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) In accordance with the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment U.S. EPA, 2005, acrylamide (AA) is characterized as "likely to be carcinogenic to humans."
11 Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Undefined B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) The observation of a statistically significant increase in incidence of lung cancer in exposed workers and observation of tumors, generally astrocytomas in the brain, in studies in two rat strains exposed by various routes (drinking water, gavage, and inhalation) forms the basis for this classification.
12 Adiponitrile 111-69-3 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human and no animal cancer data were available. Adiponitrile was negative for mutagenicity in Salmonella with and without activation.
13 Aldicarb 116-06-3 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Aldicarb was not found to induce statistically significant increases in tumor incidence in mice or rats in feeding studies or mice in a skin painting study. In the feeding studies there were, however, significant trends in pituitary tumors in female rats and fibrosarcomas in the male mouse. This evidence, together with the fact that less than maximum tolerated doses were used, indicates that the available assays are inadequate to assess the carcinogenic potential of aldicarb.
14 Aldrin 309-00-2 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Orally administered aldrin produced significant increases in tumor responses in three different strains of mice in both males and females. Tumor induction has been observed for structurally related chemicals, including dieldrin, a metabolite.
15 Allyl chloride 107-05-1 Undefined C (Possible human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Classification is based on a low (but biologically important) incidence of forestomach tumors in female mice and positive results in a variety of genetic toxicity tests. Allyl chloride is an alkylating agent and structurally related to probable human carcinogens.
16 4-Aminopyridine 504-24-5 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and no animal data available.
17 Ammonium acetate 631-61-8 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and no animal data
18 Ammonium methacrylate 16325-47-6 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and no animal data
19 Aniline 62-53-3 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Induction of tumors of the spleen and the body cavity in two strains of rat, and some supporting genetic toxicological evidence.
20 Anthracene 120-12-7 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and inadequate data from animal bioassays.
21 Apollo 74115-24-5 Undefined C (Possible human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on an increase in thyroid gland follicular cell tumors in male rats and supportive findings in pituitary/thyroid hormone activity.
22 Aramite 140-57-8 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and sufficient data from animal bioassays including increased incidence of liver tumors and/or neoplastic nodules in three strains of male and female rats and males of one strain of mice, and extrahepatic biliary system tumors in dogs following chronic oral exposure.
23 Arsenic, Inorganic 7440-38-2 Undefined A (Human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on sufficient evidence from human data. An increased lung cancer mortality was observed in multiple human populations exposed primarily through inhalation. Also, increased mortality from multiple internal organ cancers (liver, kidney, lung, and bladder) and an increased incidence of skin cancer were observed in populations consuming drinking water high in inorganic arsenic.
24 Asbestos 1332-21-4 Undefined A (Human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Observation of increased mortality and incidence of lung cancer, mesotheliomas and gastrointestinal cancer in occupationally exposed workers are consistent across investigators and study populations. Animal studies by inhalation in two strains of rats showed similar findings for lung cancer and mesotheliomas. Animal evidence for carcinogenicity via ingestion is limited (male rats fed intermediate-range chrysotile fibers; i.e., >10 um length, developed benign polyps), and epidemiologic data in this regard are inadequate.
25 Assure 76578-14-8 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and inadequate animal data.
26 Azobenzene 103-33-3 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Azobenzene induced invasive sarcomas in the spleen and other abdominal organs in male and female F344 rats following dietary administration. It is genotoxic and may be converted to benzidine, a known human carcinogen, under the acidic conditions in the stomach.
27 Barium and Compounds 7440-39-3 Inhalation Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, barium would be classified as Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), barium is considered not likely to be carcinogenic to humans following oral exposure and its carcinogenic potential cannot be determined following inhalation exposure.
28 Barium and Compounds 7440-39-3 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, barium would be classified as Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), barium is considered not likely to be carcinogenic to humans following oral exposure and its carcinogenic potential cannot be determined following inhalation exposure.
29 Barium and Compounds 7440-39-3 Oral Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, barium would be classified as Group D, not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity. Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogenic Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), barium is considered not likely to be carcinogenic to humans following oral exposure and its carcinogenic potential cannot be determined following inhalation exposure.
30 Bentazon (Basagran) 25057-89-0 Undefined E (Evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, Bentazon would be classified as evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans, or a Group E chemical. Under EPA's proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), Bentazon would be characterized as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans by any route of exposure.
31 Bentazon (Basagran) 25057-89-0 Undefined Not likely to be carcinogenic to humans Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under EPA's 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, Bentazon would be classified as evidence of non-carcinogenicity for humans, or a Group E chemical. Under EPA's proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), Bentazon would be characterized as not likely to be carcinogenic to humans by any route of exposure.
32 Benz[a]anthracene 56-55-3 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and sufficient data from animal bioassays. Benz[a]anthracene produced tumors in mice exposed by gavage; intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intramuscular injection; and topical application. Benz[a]anthracene produced mutations in bacteria and in mammalian cells, and transformed mammalian cells in culture.
33 Benzene 71-43-2 Undefined Known/likely human carcinogen Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Benzene is classified as a "known" human carcinogen (Category A) under the Risk Assessment Guidelines of 1986. Under the proposed revised Carcinogen Risk Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1996), benzene is characterized as a known human carcinogen for all routes of exposure based upon convincing human evidence as well as supporting evidence from animal studies. (U.S. EPA, 1979, 1985, 1998; ATSDR, 1997).
34 Benzene 71-43-2 Undefined A (Human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Benzene is classified as a "known" human carcinogen (Category A) under the Risk Assessment Guidelines of 1986. Under the proposed revised Carcinogen Risk Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1996), benzene is characterized as a known human carcinogen for all routes of exposure based upon convincing human evidence as well as supporting evidence from animal studies. (U.S. EPA, 1979, 1985, 1998; ATSDR, 1997).
35 Benzidine 92-87-5 Undefined A (Human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Observation of increased incidence of bladder cancer and bladder cancer-related deaths in exposed workers
36 Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) 50-32-8 None Carcinogenic to humans Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) Under EPA’s Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005), benzo[a]pyrene is “carcinogenic to humans” based on strong and consistent evidence in animals and humans.
37 Benzo[b]fluoranthene 205-99-2 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and sufficient data from animal bioassays. Benzo[b]fluoranthene produced tumors in mice after lung implantation, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, and skin painting.
38 Benzo[g,h,i]perylene 191-24-2 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and inadequate animal data from lung implant, skin-painting and subcutaneous injection bioassays.
39 Benzo[k]fluoranthene 207-08-9 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human data and sufficient data from animal bioassays. Benzo[k]fluoranthene produced tumors after lung implantation in mice and when administered with a promoting agent in skin-painting studies. Equivocal results have been found in a lung adenoma assay in mice. Benzo[k]fluoranthene is mutagenic in bacteria.
40 Benzoic acid 65-85-0 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and inadequate data from animal bioassays
41 Benzotrichloride 98-07-7 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on inadequate human data and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals; namely, significantly increased incidences of benign and malignant tumors at multiple sites in one strain of female mice treated orally, dermally, and by inhalation. There is also evidence of mutagenicity in a variety of test systems.
42 Benzyl chloride 100-44-7 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on inadequate human data and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals; namely significantly increased incidences of benign and malignant tumors at multiple sites in both sexes of mice and a significant increase in thyroid tumors in female rats. There was evidence of mutagenicity in a variety of test systems.
43 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Undefined B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) B1; probable human carcinogen. Based on the limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans exposed to airborne beryllium (lung cancer) and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals (lung cancer in rats and monkeys inhaling beryllium, lung tumors in rats exposed to beryllium via intratracheal instillation, and osteosarcomas in rabbits and possibly mice receiving intravenous or intramedullary injection), beryllium is reclassified from a B2 (inadequate human data) to a B1 probable human carcinogen (limited human data) using criteria of the 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Using the 1996 proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, inhaled beryllium would be characterized as a "likely" carcinogen in humans, and the human carcinogenic potential of ingested beryllium cannot be determined.
44 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Oral Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) B1; probable human carcinogen. Based on the limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans exposed to airborne beryllium (lung cancer) and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals (lung cancer in rats and monkeys inhaling beryllium, lung tumors in rats exposed to beryllium via intratracheal instillation, and osteosarcomas in rabbits and possibly mice receiving intravenous or intramedullary injection), beryllium is reclassified from a B2 (inadequate human data) to a B1 probable human carcinogen (limited human data) using criteria of the 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Using the 1996 proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, inhaled beryllium would be characterized as a "likely" carcinogen in humans, and the human carcinogenic potential of ingested beryllium cannot be determined.
45 Beryllium and compounds 7440-41-7 Inhalation Known/likely human carcinogen Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) B1; probable human carcinogen. Based on the limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans exposed to airborne beryllium (lung cancer) and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals (lung cancer in rats and monkeys inhaling beryllium, lung tumors in rats exposed to beryllium via intratracheal instillation, and osteosarcomas in rabbits and possibly mice receiving intravenous or intramedullary injection), beryllium is reclassified from a B2 (inadequate human data) to a B1 probable human carcinogen (limited human data) using criteria of the 1986 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment. Using the 1996 proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, inhaled beryllium would be characterized as a "likely" carcinogen in humans, and the human carcinogenic potential of ingested beryllium cannot be determined.
46 Biphenyl 92-52-4 None Suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) Under EPA’s Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), the database for biphenyl provides “suggestive evidence of carcinogenic potential” based on increased incidence of urinary bladder tumors (transitional cell papillomas and carcinomas) in male F344 rats (Umeda et al., 2002) and liver tumors (hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas) in female BDF1 mice (Umeda et al., 2005) exposed to biphenyl in the diet for 104 weeks, as well as information on mode of carcinogenic action. The carcinogenic potential of biphenyl in humans has not been investigated.
47 Bis(2-chloroethoxy)methane 111-91-1 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and no animal data.
48 Bis(chloroethyl)ether (BCEE) 111-44-4 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Positive carcinogenicity results in two strains of mice and evidence of mutagenicity
49 Bis(chloromethyl)ether (BCME) 542-88-1 Undefined A (Human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Statistically significant increases in lung tumors (oat cell carcinomas) observed in six studies of exposed workers and bioassay data from rats and mice.
50 Boron and Compounds 7440-42-8 Oral Data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential Revised Draft Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999) Under the Draft Revised Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), data are inadequate for an assessment of human carcinogenic potential for boron.
51 Bromate 15541-45-4 Oral Known/likely human carcinogen Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the current Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986), bromate would be classified as B2, probable human carcinogen. Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), bromate should be evaluated as a likely human carcinogen by the oral route of exposure. Insufficient data are available to evaluate the human carcinogenic potential of bromate by the inhalation route.
52 Bromate 15541-45-4 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under the current Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986), bromate would be classified as B2, probable human carcinogen. Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), bromate should be evaluated as a likely human carcinogen by the oral route of exposure. Insufficient data are available to evaluate the human carcinogenic potential of bromate by the inhalation route.
53 Bromate 15541-45-4 Inhalation Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the current Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986), bromate would be classified as B2, probable human carcinogen. Under the Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), bromate should be evaluated as a likely human carcinogen by the oral route of exposure. Insufficient data are available to evaluate the human carcinogenic potential of bromate by the inhalation route.
54 Brominated dibenzofurans None Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No data in humans or animals
55 Bromobenzene 108-86-1 Undefined Inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) Under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), there is "inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential" of bromobenzene.
56 Bromochloromethane 74-97-5 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on the lack of data regarding the carcinogenicity of bromochloromethane in humans or animals; however, there are data indicative of genotoxic effects and structural relationships to halogenated methanes classified as B2 probable human carcinogens.
57 Bromodichloromethane 75-27-4 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on inadequate human data and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in two animal species (mice and rats) as shown by increased incidence of kidney tumors and tumors of the large intestine in male and female rats, kidney tumors in male mice, and liver tumors in female mice.
58 p-Bromodiphenyl ether 101-55-3 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and inadequate animal data.
59 Bromoform 75-25-2 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on inadequate human data and sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals, namely an increased incidence of tumors after oral administration of bromoform in rats and intraperitoneal administration in mice. Bromoform is genotoxic in several assay systems. Also, bromoform is structurally related to other trihalomethanes (e.g., chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane) which have been verified as either probable or possible carcinogens.
60 Bromomethane 74-83-9 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Inadequate human and animal data: a single mortality study from which direct exposure associations could not be deduced and studies in several animal species with too few animals, too brief exposure or observation time for adequate power. Bromomethane has shown genotoxicity.
61 Bromotrichloromethane 75-62-7 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no data regarding the carcinogenicity of bromotrichloromethane in humans or animals.
62 1,3-Butadiene 106-99-0 Undefined Carcinogenic to humans Revised Draft Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999) Under EPA's 1999 Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1999), 1,3-butadiene is characterized as carcinogenic to humans by inhalation. This characterization is supported by the total weight of evidence provided by the following: (1) sufficient evidence from epidemiologic studies of the majority of U.S. workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene, either to the monomer or to the polymer by inhalation, showing increased lymphohematopoietic cancers and a dose-response relationship for leukemias in polymer workers (see Section II.A.2), (2) sufficient evidence in laboratory animal studies showing that 1,3-butadiene causes tumors at multiple sites in mice and rats by inhalation (see Section II.A.3), and (3) numerous studies consistently demonstrating that 1,3-butadiene is metabolized into genotoxic metabolites by experimental animals and humans (see Section II.A.4). The specific mechanisms of 1,3-butadiene-induced carcinogenesis are unknown however, the scientific evidence strongly suggests that the carcinogenic effects are mediated by genotoxic metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, i.e., the monoepoxide, the diepoxide, and the epoxydiol.
63 Butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) 85-68-7 Undefined C (Possible human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on statistically significant increase in mononuclear cell leukemia in female rats; the response in male rats was inconclusive and there was no such response in mice.
64 t-Butylchloride 507-20-0 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human carcinogenicity data and inadequate animal data.
65 Cacodylic acid 75-60-5 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data and inadequate data in animals
66 Cadmium 7440-43-9 Undefined B1 (Probable human carcinogen - based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Limited evidence from occupational epidemiologic studies of cadmium is consistent across investigators and study populations. There is sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in rats and mice by inhalation and intramuscular and subcutaneous injection. Seven studies in rats and mice wherein cadmium salts (acetate, sulfate, chloride) were administered orally have shown no evidence of carcinogenic response.
67 Carbon tetrachloride 56-23-5 Undefined Likely to be carcinogenic to humans Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) Under the Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), carbon tetrachloride is "likely to be carcinogenic to humans."
68 Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds 1306-38-3 Undefined Inadequate information to assess carcinogenic potential Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) In accordance with U.S. EPA (2005a) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment, there is "inadequate information to assess the carcinogenic potential" of cerium in humans.
69 Chloral hydrate 302-17-0 Oral Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the 1986 cancer guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), chloral hydrate is assigned to Group C, possible human carcinogen. Under the 1996 proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), chloral hydrate shows suggestive evidence of human carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure. There are no carcinogenicity data from humans.
70 Chloral hydrate 302-17-0 Undefined C (Possible human carcinogen) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under the 1986 cancer guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), chloral hydrate is assigned to Group C, possible human carcinogen. Under the 1996 proposed guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996), chloral hydrate shows suggestive evidence of human carcinogenicity by the oral route of exposure. There are no carcinogenicity data from humans.
71 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Undefined Known/likely human carcinogen Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the 1996 Proposed Guidelines, chlordane would be characterized as a likely carcinogen by all routes of exposure.
72 Chlordane (Technical) 12789-03-6 Undefined B2 (Probable human carcinogen - based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under the 1996 Proposed Guidelines, chlordane would be characterized as a likely carcinogen by all routes of exposure.
73 Chlordecone (Kepone) 143-50-0 Undefined Likely to be carcinogenic to humans Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005) Under the U.S. EPA Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 2005a), chlordecone is "likely to be carcinogenic to humans" based on data from an oral cancer bioassay in rats and mice demonstrating an increase in the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in both sexes of both species (NCI, 1976a, b).
74 Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 Undefined Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the current guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), chlorine dioxide is classified as Group D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity because of inadequate data in humans and animals. Under the draft Carcinogen Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1996), the human carcinogenicity of chlorine dioxide cannot be determined because no satisfactory human or animal studies assessing the chronic carcinogenic potential of chlorine dioxide have been located.
75 Chlorine dioxide 10049-04-4 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under the current guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), chlorine dioxide is classified as Group D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity because of inadequate data in humans and animals. Under the draft Carcinogen Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1996), the human carcinogenicity of chlorine dioxide cannot be determined because no satisfactory human or animal studies assessing the chronic carcinogenic potential of chlorine dioxide have been located.
76 Chlorite (sodium salt) 7758-19-2 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Under the current guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), chlorite is classified as Group D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity because of inadequate data in humans and animals. Under the draft Carcinogen Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1996), the human carcinogenicity of chlorite cannot be determined because of a lack of human data and limitations in animal studies.
77 Chlorite (sodium salt) 7758-19-2 Undefined Carcinogenic potential cannot be determined Proposed Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1996) Under the current guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1986), chlorite is classified as Group D; not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity because of inadequate data in humans and animals. Under the draft Carcinogen Assessment Guidelines (U.S. EPA, 1996), the human carcinogenicity of chlorite cannot be determined because of a lack of human data and limitations in animal studies.
78 Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) No human data, inadequate animal data and predominantly negative genetic toxicity data in bacterial, yeast, and mouse lymphoma cells.
79 2-Chlorobutane 78-86-4 Undefined D (Not classifiable as to human carcinogenicity) Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment (U.S. EPA, 1986) Based on no human carcinogenicity data and inadequate animal data.